Problem: Classify each orbital diagram for ground-state electron configurations by the rule or principle it violatesWhen writing the ground-state electron configuration of a many-electron atom, three main rules must be followed:The aufbau principle: Electrons are added to the lowest energy orbitals availableThe Pauli exclusion principle: No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, mℓ, and ms)Hund's rule: For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy state is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized. So for a degenerate set of orbitals, one electron goes into each orbital until all the orbitals of the subshell are half-filled. Once all the orbitals of the subshell are half-filled the pairing of electrons can take place.Note that aufbau is the German word for "building up."

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Classify each orbital diagram for ground-state electron configurations by the rule or principle it violates


When writing the ground-state electron configuration of a many-electron atom, three main rules must be followed:

  • The aufbau principle: Electrons are added to the lowest energy orbitals available
  • The Pauli exclusion principle: No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, m, and ms)
  • Hund's rule: For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy state is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized. So for a degenerate set of orbitals, one electron goes into each orbital until all the orbitals of the subshell are half-filled. Once all the orbitals of the subshell are half-filled the pairing of electrons can take place.

Note that aufbau is the German word for "building up."

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