In the PhET simulation window, click the Macro menu in the top left corner of the screen. This view gives a view of the beaker at a macroscopic level (as your naked eye would see it). The Micro menu shows what happens to sugars and salts at the molecular level when they dissolve in water (and note that you can use the arrows to switch to other type of solutes). Use both the Macro and Micro menus in the PhET simulation to help complete the following statements regarding solutions.
Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.
Compounds contain two or more elements bonded together; these bonds can be either ionic or covalent. Ionic bonds occur between two atoms that transfer, rather than share, electrons.
Although ionic bonds are the strongest type of interaction (between a positive charge and a negative charge), they can be easily dissociated in water because water has stronger interactions with the ions when it is significantly more abundant. Covalent bonds do not dissociate in water, and the electrons can be unevenly shared between atoms such that the atoms participating in those bonds can have partial charges. In fact, water is one such molecule, where the oxygen has a partial negative charge because oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogens, and the hydrogens have partial positive charges. Molecules with significant partial charges can interact with each other and ions in a similar manner to ion-ion interactions.
Click on the image below to explore this simulation, which allows you to explore the dissolution of various ionic and covalent species at three levels as they dissolve in water. When you click the simulation link, you may be asked whether to run, open, or save the file. Choose to run or open it.
The Macro menu reflects what we observe on the human observational level when either salt or sugar is dissolved. The Micro menu depicts what occurs on a molecular level for various salts and different types of sugars. The Water menu shows how the partial charges interact with each other and with ions.
Frequently Asked Questions
What scientific concept do you need to know in order to solve this problem?
Our tutors have indicated that to solve this problem you will need to apply the Solutions, Molarity and Intermolecular Forces concept. You can view video lessons to learn Solutions, Molarity and Intermolecular Forces. Or if you need more Solutions, Molarity and Intermolecular Forces practice, you can also practice Solutions, Molarity and Intermolecular Forces practice problems.