Intermolecular Forces Video Lessons

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Problem: Which of the following compounds are listed in order of increasing boiling point? a. pentane, 1- butanol, 2 butanone b. 1- butanol, butanal, pentane c. 2 butanone, pentane, 1 butanol d. pentane, butanal, 1 butanol e. pentane, 1- butanol, butanal

FREE Expert Solution

Intermolecular forces (IMF’s) keep molecules stuck together

  • stronger IMF → higher boiling point

Strength of IMF's:

  1. Hydrogen bonding (strongest)
    • H bonded directly to either O, F or N
  2. Dipole-dipole
    • also called net dipole force → present in polar molecules (net dipole)
  3. Van der Waals forces (weakest):
    • Also known as London Dispersion Forces or Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces 
    • primary IMF for nonpolar molecules
    • All molecules possess Van der Waals Forces. They increase with the following properties:  
      • size (heavier, stronger)
      • shape: Ring > Straight Chains > Branched Chains


  • aldehydes (ends in -al) → (-CHO) → polar molecule → dipole-dipole forces
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Problem Details

Which of the following compounds are listed in order of increasing boiling point? 

a. pentane, 1- butanol, 2 butanone 

b. 1- butanol, butanal, pentane 

c. 2 butanone, pentane, 1 butanol 

d. pentane, butanal, 1 butanol 

e. pentane, 1- butanol, butanal

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