Effective nuclear charge can be calculated as:

$\overline{){{\mathbf{Z}}}_{{\mathbf{eff}}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{atomic}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{\#}}{\mathbf{\hspace{0.17em}}}{\mathbf{-}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{core}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{electrons}}}$

For B (3 valence electrons):

The shielding of electrons gives rise to an effective nuclear charge, Z_{eff}, which explains why boron is larger than oxygen. Estimate the approximate Z_{eff} felt by a valence electron of boron and oxygen, respectively?

a) +5 and +8

b) +3 and +6

c) +5 and +6

d) +3 and +8

e) +1 and +4

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