Ionization energy (I. E.) is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.
• First I.E. corresponds to removing the first valence electron from a neutral atom
• Second I.E. refers to removing a second electron
• Third I.E. refers to removing the third electron
First ionization energy → removing the first valence electron
Li → 1s22s1
B → 1s22s22p1
O → 1s22s22p4
F → 1s22s22p5
Na → 1s22s22p63s1
Second ionization energy → removing the second electron from X+ ion
Which of the following elements has the largest second ionization energy (IE2)?
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