We’re being asked to classify each ion as diamagnetic or paramagnetic.
Recall that for:
• diamagnetic: all of the electrons are paired
• paramagnetic: at least one electron is unpaired
For neutral element, Atomic Number = # of protons = # of electrons.
Step 1: Electron configuration
Atomic # = 30 → 30 e-
Nearest noble gas before Zn → Ar (18 e–).
The shorthand e– config. for Cu is:
Step 2: Orbital diagram
Outermost sublevel: 3d → 5 orbitals (d)
When filling up the orbitals, take note of:
• Aufbau Principle: totally fill in the lowest energy orbital first
• Hund’s Rule: electron orbitals that are degenerate (same energy orbital) are first half-filled before they are totally filled
Classify these atoms and ions as paramagnetic or diamagnetic.
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