Problem: Classify these atoms and ions as paramagnetic or diamagnetic.ZnFe3+ZrAl3+

FREE Expert Solution

We’re being asked to classify each ion as diamagnetic or paramagnetic.


Recall that for:

• diamagnetic: all of the electrons are paired

• paramagnetic: at least one electron is unpaired


For neutral element, Atomic Number = # of protons = # of electrons.


For Zn:


Step 1: Electron configuration


Atomic # = 30 → 30 e-


 Nearest noble gas before Zn   Ar (18 e)


The shorthand e config. for Cu is:

Zn: [Ar]4s23d10


Step 2: Orbital diagram


Outermost sublevel: 3d 5 orbitals (d)


When filling up the orbitals, take note of:

• Aufbau Principle: totally fill in the lowest energy orbital first

• Hund’s Rule: electron orbitals that are degenerate (same energy orbital) are first half-filled before they are totally filled


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Problem Details

Classify these atoms and ions as paramagnetic or diamagnetic.

Zn

Fe3+

Zr

Al3+

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