# Problem: Which of the following are valid ways to make an ammonia/ammonium buffer for use in a laboratory? Explain your choices. a) Mix equal volumes of 1 M NH3 and 1 M NH4+ b) Mix equal volumes of 1 M NH3  and 0.01 M NH4+ c) Mix equal volumes of 1 M NH3  and 1 HCld) Mix some volume of 1 M NH3 and half as much HCl

###### FREE Expert Solution

We’re being asked to determine which of the given solutions are valid ways to make a good buffer.

Recall that a buffer can be composed of the following:

weak base and its conjugate acid
weak acid and its conjugate base
weak acid and a strong base

▪ concentration of weak acid > concentration of strong base

weak base and a strong acid

concentration of weak base > concentration of strong acid

The maximum buffering capacity of a solution is when the pH of the solution is equal to pKa and the buffer range of a solution is pH = pKa ± 1

maximum buffering capacity:              pH = pKa

buffering range:              pH = pKa ± 1

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###### Problem Details

Which of the following are valid ways to make an ammonia/ammonium buffer for use in a laboratory? Explain your choices.

a) Mix equal volumes of 1 M NH3 and 1 M NH4+

b) Mix equal volumes of 1 M NH3  and 0.01 M NH4+

c) Mix equal volumes of 1 M NH3  and 1 HCl

d) Mix some volume of 1 M NHand half as much HCl