• Strong electrolytes: dissociate completely in water; include soluble ionic salts, strong acids, and bases
a. Ionic salts: those that follow the rules of being soluble in solubility rules
b. Strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HClO3
c. Strong bases: Group 1A and 2A (Ca and lower) metals paired with OH–, H–, O2–, or NH2–
• Weak electrolytes: doesn’t dissociate completely in water; include weak acids and bases
a. Weak acids: include HF, HC2H3O2, HNO2, H2CO3, H3PO4
b. Weak bases: Be(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, NH3, NH4OH
• Nonelectrolytes: doesn’t dissociate at all; include molecular compounds
a. Alcohols: composed of carbon and hydrogen with a –OH group
b. Sugars: for example C6H12O6 (glucose) and C12H22O11 (sucrose)
c. Water (H2O)
Both NH3 and C12H22O11 are soluble molecular compounds, yet they behave differently in aqueous solution. Briefly explain why one is a weak electrolyte and the other is a nonelectrolyte.
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