🤓 Based on our data, we think this question is relevant for Professor Pentecost's class at GVSU.

Part A:

We’re being asked to calculate the effective nuclear charge (Z_{eff}) of the valence electron in oxygen (O) atom. Recall that the *effective nuclear charge* is the forces exerted by the nucleus onto an electron and is given by:

where Z = nuclear charge or atomic number and S = shielding constant. For this problem, we need to do the following steps:

*Step 1:* Determine the atomic number.

*Step 2:* Determine the electron configuration and group them by n-values.

*Step 3:* Calculate for the shielding constant.

*Step 4:* Calculate for Z_{eff}.

Part A: Calculate Z_{eff} for a valence electron in an oxygen atom.

Part B: Calculate Z_{eff }for the 4*s* electron in a copper atom, Cu.

Part C: Calculate Z_{eff }for a 3*d* electron in a copper atom, Cu.

Frequently Asked Questions

What scientific concept do you need to know in order to solve this problem?

Our tutors have indicated that to solve this problem you will need to apply the Effective Nuclear Charge concept. You can view video lessons to learn Effective Nuclear Charge. Or if you need more Effective Nuclear Charge practice, you can also practice Effective Nuclear Charge practice problems.

What professor is this problem relevant for?

Based on our data, we think this problem is relevant for Professor Pentecost's class at GVSU.