Ch. 17 - Chemical ThermodynamicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Potential energy and free energy. An analogy is shown between the gravitational potential-energy change of a boulder rolling down a hill and the free-energy change in a spontaneous reaction.

Problem

A diagram shows a rock at a high potential energy, positions high above the equilibrium position in a valley.  This situation is analogous to a graph showing course of reaction on the x-axis and free energy on the y-axis (increasing, unscaled).  The reactants are at a high free energy on the left and the products are at a medium free energy on the right.  In between products and reactants is a valley that is the equilibrium mixture.
Potential energy and free energy. An analogy is shown between the gravitational potential-energy change of a boulder rolling down a hill and the free-energy change in a spontaneous reaction. Free energy always decreases in a spontaneous process when pressure and temperature are held constant.

Are the processes that move a system toward equilibrium spontaneous or nonspontaneous?