Ch. 17 - Chemical ThermodynamicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: For which of the following processes does the entropy of the system increase? (a) the ripening of a banana, (b) dissolution of sugar in a cup of hot coffee, (c) the reaction of nitrogen atoms to form N2 molecules at 25 and 1 atm, (d) lightning, (e) formation of CH4 and O2 molecules from CO2 and H2O at room temperature and 1 atm of pressure?

Solution: For which of the following processes does the entropy of the system increase?(a) the ripening of a banana,(b) dissolution of sugar in a cup of hot coffee,(c) the reaction of nitrogen atoms to form N2

Problem

For which of the following processes does the entropy of the system increase?
(a) the ripening of a banana,
(b) dissolution of sugar in a cup of hot coffee,
(c) the reaction of nitrogen atoms to form N2 molecules at 25 and 1 atm,
(d) lightning,
(e) formation of CH4 and O2 molecules from CO2 and H2O at room temperature and 1 atm of pressure?

Solution

We are asked which of the given statements suggest an increase in entropy (i.e. +ΔS).

The statements given describe the spontaneity of the reaction.

Recall:

Entropy is the disorder or chaos associated with a system’s inability to convert thermal energy into mechanical work. 

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (i.e. relating to entropy) states systems (chemical reactions) spontaneously move to a state of disorder, hence:

Sfinal > Sinitial = +ΔS


For nonspontaneous reactions:

Sfinal < Sinitial = -ΔS


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