Ch. 17 - Chemical ThermodynamicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

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Solution: Do biological systems contradict the second law of thermodynamics? By taking energy from their surroundings and synthesizing large, complex biological molecules, plants and animals tend to concentrate

Solution: Do biological systems contradict the second law of thermodynamics? By taking energy from their surroundings and synthesizing large, complex biological molecules, plants and animals tend to concentrate

Problem

Do biological systems contradict the second law of thermodynamics? By taking energy from their surroundings and synthesizing large, complex biological molecules, plants and animals tend to concentrate energy, not disperse it.

How can this be so?

Solution

In this problem, we are asked if biological systems contradict the second law of thermodynamics


Recall that the second law of thermodynamics states that: “the entropy of the universe increases.

  • Entropy is the degree of randomness or disorder in a system.


The system is the part of the universe that is of interest.

  • There are three types of system.
    1. An open system can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings.
    2. closed system can exchange only energy with its surroundings, not matter.
    3. An isolated system is one that cannot exchange either matter or energy with its surroundings


The surroundings is everything that is not included in the system.

The universe is the combination of the system and the surroundings.


To answer this problem, let us first define what kind of systems are biological systems.

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