**Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation**

$\overline{){\mathbf{p}}{\mathbf{H}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{p}}{{\mathbf{K}}}_{{\mathbf{a}}}{\mathbf{+}}{\mathbf{l}}{\mathbf{o}}{\mathbf{g}}\left(\frac{\mathbf{c}\mathbf{o}\mathbf{n}\mathbf{j}\mathbf{u}\mathbf{g}\mathbf{a}\mathbf{t}\mathbf{e}\mathbf{}\mathbf{b}\mathbf{a}\mathbf{s}\mathbf{e}}{\mathbf{w}\mathbf{e}\mathbf{a}\mathbf{k}\mathbf{}\mathbf{a}\mathbf{c}\mathbf{i}\mathbf{d}}\right)}$

$\mathit{p}\mathit{H}\mathbf{=}\mathbf{6}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{1}\mathbf{+}\mathbf{log}\mathbf{}\left(\frac{\mathbf{0}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{024}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{M}}}{\mathbf{0}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{0012}\overline{)\mathbf{}\mathbf{M}}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathit{p}\mathit{H}\mathbf{=}\mathbf{6}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{1}\mathbf{+}\mathbf{1}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{30}$

*pH = 7.40 (initial buffer pH)*

**HCl (strong acid) will react with HCO _{3}^{-} (base).**

- base gains H
^{+}

**Reaction:**

**HCO _{3}^{-}_{(aq)} + HCl_{(aq)} →H_{2}CO_{3}_{(aq)} + Cl^{-}_{(aq)}**

**If x = concentration of HCl**

**ICF CHART:**

Blood is buffered by carbonic acid and the bicarbonate ion. Normal blood plasma is 0.024 M in HCO_{3}^{–} and 0.0012 M H_{2}CO_{3} (pK_{a1} for H_{2} CO_{3} at body temperature is 6.1). If the volume of blood in a normal adult is 5.0 L, what mass of HCl could be neutralized by the buffering system in blood before the pH fell below 7.0 (which would result in death)?

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