Problem: Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances.Use intermolecular forces, including hydrogen-bonding interactions where applicable, to explain your responses.

FREE Expert Solution

We’re being asked to use intermolecular forces to explain the difference in enthalpy values of the given compounds.

The intermolecular forces are responsible for holding the liquid together. The enthalpy of vaporization is, roughly, a measure of how much energy is required to break those intermolecular forces apart. 

That is, the stronger the intermolecular forces, the larger the enthalpy of vaporization will be.


Recall that we have different intermolecular forces:


Intermolecular Forces (IMF) are the attractive forces between 2 molecules.

Ion-dipole

strongest IMF
▪ deals with the attraction between an ion and a polar compound.

 Hydrogen Bonding

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Problem Details

Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances.

The acetaldehyde molecule has a central C double bonded above to O and single bonded left to CH3 and right to H. It has an enthalpy value of 30.4. The ethylene oxide molecule has a single-bonded triangle with O at the point and CH2 at the other two vertices. It has an enthalpy value of 28.5. The acetone molecule has a central C double bonded above to O and single bonded left and right to CH3. Its enthalpy value is 32.0. Cyclopropane has a single-bonded triangle with CH2 at all three vertices, and an enthalpy value of 24.7.

Use intermolecular forces, including hydrogen-bonding interactions where applicable, to explain your responses.

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