Problem: Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances.Account for the variations in heats of vaporization for these substances, considering their relative intermolecular forces.

FREE Expert Solution

We’re being asked to identify what accounts for the variation of enthalpy of evaporation of the given substance with intermolecular forces.


Recall that there are several types of intermolecular forces (IMF):

1. Ion-dipole interaction – occurs between an ion and a polar covalent compound; strongest IMF

2. Hydrogen bonding – occurs in compounds where hydrogen is directly connected to an electronegative element such as N, O, or F; 2nd strongest IMF

3. Dipole-dipole interaction – occurs between two polar covalent compounds; 3rd strongest IMF

4. Dispersion forces – occurs in all compounds and is the primary IMF exhibited by nonpolar compounds; weakest IMF


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Problem Details

Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances.

The acetaldehyde molecule has a central C double bonded above to O and single bonded left to CH3 and right to H. It has an enthalpy value of 30.4. The ethylene oxide molecule has a single-bonded triangle with O at the point and CH2 at the other two vertices. It has an enthalpy value of 28.5. The acetone molecule has a central C double bonded above to O and single bonded left and right to CH3. Its enthalpy value is 32.0. Cyclopropane has a single-bonded triangle with CH2 at all three vertices, and an enthalpy value of 24.7.

Account for the variations in heats of vaporization for these substances, considering their relative intermolecular forces.

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