We’re being asked to identify what accounts for the variation of enthalpy of evaporation of the given substance with intermolecular forces.
Recall that there are several types of intermolecular forces (IMF):
1. Ion-dipole interaction – occurs between an ion and a polar covalent compound; strongest IMF
2. Hydrogen bonding – occurs in compounds where hydrogen is directly connected to an electronegative element such as N, O, or F; 2nd strongest IMF
3. Dipole-dipole interaction – occurs between two polar covalent compounds; 3rd strongest IMF
4. Dispersion forces – occurs in all compounds and is the primary IMF exhibited by nonpolar compounds; weakest IMF
Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances.
Account for the variations in heats of vaporization for these substances, considering their relative intermolecular forces.
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