Ch.12 - SolutionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution:
Using the van't Hoff factors in the table below, calculate the mass of solute required to make each aqueous solution.
Van't Hoff factors at 0.05 m concentration in aqueous solution
SoluteExpectedMeasured
Nonelectrolyte11
NaCl21.9
MgSO421.3
MgCl232.7
K2SO432.6
FeCl343.4
Calculate the mass of solute required to make an iron(III) chloride solution containing 261 g of water that has a boiling point of 108 oC.

Solution: Using the van't Hoff factors in the table below, calculate the mass of solute required to make each aqueous solution.Van't Hoff factors at 0.05 m concentration in aqueous solutionSoluteExpectedMeasure

Problem
Using the van't Hoff factors in the table below, calculate the mass of solute required to make each aqueous solution.
Van't Hoff factors at 0.05 m concentration in aqueous solution
SoluteExpectedMeasured
Nonelectrolyte11
NaCl21.9
MgSO421.3
MgCl232.7
K2SO432.6
FeCl343.4

Calculate the mass of solute required to make an iron(III) chloride solution containing 261 g of water that has a boiling point of 108 oC.
Solution

When a non-volatile solute is added to a volatile solvent, it causes an increase in the boiling point of the solvent. This is one of the four colligative properties and is known as the boiling point elevation.


Boiling point elevation is calculated using this formula:


<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo>&#x2206;</mo><mi>T</mi><mo>&#xA0;</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>&#xA0;</mo><mi>i</mi><mo>&#xB7;</mo><msub><mi>K</mi><mi>b</mi></msub><mo>&#xB7;</mo><mi>m</mi></math>


In this equation:

i = Van’t Hoff factor

Kb = ebullioscopic (boiling point elevation) constant for water = 0.512 oC/m

m = molality of solution


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