Chemistry Intermolecular Forces Solution: Molecular weights, dipole moments, and boiling poi...

Solution: Molecular weights, dipole moments, and boiling points of several simple organic substances.Moving from left to right, do the dispersion forces get stronger, get weaker, or stay roughly the same in the molecules shown above?

Problem



Polarity and dipole-dipole interactions increase from the first to the last molecule listed here: Propane has a structural formula of CH3CH2CH3, a molecular weight of 44 amu, a dipole moment of 0.1 Debye, and boiling point of 231 Kelvin. Dimethyl ether has a structural formula of CH3OCH3, a molecular weight of 46 amu, a dipole moment of 1.3 Debye, and boiling point of 248 Kelvin. Acetaldehyde has a structural formula of CH3CHO, a molecular weight of 44 amu, a dipole moment of 2.7 Debye, and boiling point of 294 Kelvin. Acetonitrile has a structural formula of CH3CN, a molecular weight of 41 amu, a dipole moment of 3.9 Debye, and boiling point of 355 Kelvin.


Molecular weights, dipole moments, and boiling points of several simple organic substances.


Moving from left to right, do the dispersion forces get stronger, get weaker, or stay roughly the same in the molecules shown above?

Solution

We have to determine what happens to the strength of dispersion forces in the given trend.

Dispersion forces occur in all types of compounds, no matter whether they are polar or nonpolar.


Dispersion forces are a result of inhomogeneity in electron cloud distributionaround the molecules.

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