Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Gases, liquids, and solids. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine are all made up of diatomic molecules as a result of covalent bonding. However, due to differences in the strength of the i

Problem

In chlorine (Cl2), a gas, particles are far apart and possess complete freedom of motion. Kinetic energies of particles are greater than energies of particle–particle attraction. In bromine (Br2), a liquid, particles are closely packed but randomly oriented and retain freedom of motion. Kinetic energies of particles are similar to energies of particle–particle attraction. In iodine (I2), a crystalline solid, particles are closely packed in an ordered array and positions are essentially fixed. Energies of particle–particle attraction are greater than kinetic energies of particles.

Gases, liquids, and solids. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine are all made up of diatomic molecules as a result of covalent bonding. However, due to differences in the strength of the intermolecular forces, they exist in three different states at room temperature and standard pressure: Cl2 gaseous, Br2 liquid, I2 solid.

For a given substance, do you expect the density of the substance in its liquid state to be closer to the density in the gaseous state or in the solid state?