Chemistry Intermolecular Forces Solution: Flowchart for determining intermolecular forces. M...

Solution: Flowchart for determining intermolecular forces. Multiple types of intermolecular forces can be at work in a given substance or mixture. In particular, dispersion forces occur in all substances.Can the energies of multiple dispersion forces between two molecules be larger than the energy of hydrogen bonding between the two molecules?

Problem


Energy for dispersion forces ranges from 0.1 to 30 kJ/mol, and are found in atoms, nonpolar molecules, polar molecules with and without OH, NH, or HF groups, and in ionic solids dissolved in polar liquids. Energy for dipole-dipole interactions ranges from 2 to 15 kJ/mol, and are found in polar molecules both with and without OH, NH, or HF groups. Energy for hydrogen bonding ranges from 10 to 40 kJ/mol, and is found in polar molecules containing OH, NH, or HF groups. Energy for ion-dipole interactions is greater than 50 kJ/mol, and are found in ionic solids dissolved in polar liquids.


Flowchart for determining intermolecular forces. Multiple types of intermolecular forces can be at work in a given substance or mixture. In particular, dispersion forces occur in all substances.


Can the energies of multiple dispersion forces between two molecules be larger than the energy of hydrogen bonding between the two molecules?

Solution

We are asked to determine if the energies of multiple dispersion forces between two molecules are larger than the energy of hydrogen bonding between the two molecules.


Recall:

Despite the use of the word “bond,” keep in mind that hydrogen bonds are intermolecular attractive forces, not intramolecular attractive forces (covalent bonds). Hydrogen bonds are much weaker than covalent bonds, only about 5 to 10% as strong, but are generally much stronger than other dipole-dipole attractions and dispersion forces.


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