Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: The fact that water on Earth can readily be found in all three states (solid, liquid, and gas) is in part a consequence of the fact that the triple point of water (T = 0.01 , P = 0.006 atm) falls with

Problem

The fact that water on Earth can readily be found in all three states (solid, liquid, and gas) is in part a consequence of the fact that the triple point of water (T = 0.01 , P = 0.006 atm) falls within a range of temperatures and pressures found on Earth. Saturns largest moon, Titan, has a considerable amount of methane in its atmosphere. The conditions on the surface of Titan are estimated to be P = 1.6 atm and T = -178 . As seen from the phase diagram of methane given below, these conditions are not far from the triple point of methane, raising the tantalizing possibility that solid, liquid, and gaseous methane can be found on Titan.

Phase diagram of methane. The x axis temperature in degrees C ranging from -200 to 100 with intervals of 100. The y axis is pressure in atmospheres ranging from 10 to the -4 to 10 to the 3 in log scale. 1-Point that is the intersection of the sublimation, melting, and vapor-pressure curves. -180 degrees C and 10 to the -1 atmospheres. 2-A point in the gas phase at 0 degrees C and 1 atmosphere. 3-Point at the upper end of the vapor-pressure curve. -80 degrees C and 50 atmospheres Sublimation curve. Curve slanting right from negative 220 degrees C and 10 to the -4 atmospheres to point 1. Melting curve. Curve rising nearly vertically and then slanting right from point 1 to the top of the y-axis near 0 degrees C. Vapor-pressure curve. Curve from point 1 to point 3. Solid. Left of melting curve and sublimation curve. Liquid. Above point 1, left of point 3, and between the melting and vapor-pressure curves. Gas. Right of the sublimation and vapor pressure curves.

On moving upward through the atmosphere, the pressure will decrease. If we assume that the temperature of -178 oC does not change or fluctuate, what phase change would you expect to see as we move away from the surface?