Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Brittleness and faceting in ionic crystals. (a) When a shear stress (blue arrows) is applied to an ionic solid, the crystal separates along a plane of atoms as shown. (b) This property of

Problem

A diagram showing (a) brittleness and (b) faceting in crystals. (a) (1) A shear stress is applied to an ionic crystal. A diagram shows four rows consisting of alternating cations and anions. A force is applied to the upper left and lower right corners. (2) Planes of atoms slide in response to stress. The two upper rows of alternating cations and anions have shifted right and overhang the lower rows, so that ions with like charges near each other. (3) Repulsive interactions between ions of like charge lead to separation of the layers. Anions in adjacent rows repel anions, and cations repel cations, pushing the rows apart. (b) A photograph shows facets, or flattened areas, on a ruby.

Brittleness and faceting in ionic crystals. (a) When a shear stress (blue arrows) is applied to an ionic solid, the crystal separates along a plane of atoms as shown. (b) This property of ionic crystals is used to facet gemstones, such as rubies.

Why dont metals cleave in the way depicted here for ionic substances?