Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Which of the molecules have net dipole moments (are polar)?a. XeCl2b. ICl3c. TeF4d. PCl5e. ICl5 f. XeCl4 g. SeCl6

Solution: Which of the molecules have net dipole moments (are polar)?a. XeCl2b. ICl3c. TeF4d. PCl5e. ICl5 f. XeCl4 g. SeCl6

Problem

Which of the molecules have net dipole moments (are polar)?

a. XeCl2

b. ICl3

c. TeF4

d. PCl5

e. ICl5 

f. XeCl4 

g. SeCl6

Solution

Dipole moments or polarity happens in molecules when there is an unequal sharing of electrons. For these molecules, both molecular shape and bond polarity can affect their overall polarity. 


When the central element has no lone pairs and has the same surrounding elements then usually the molecule is nonpolar.


There are 3 cases when a molecule is non-polar:


1. Molecular shapes that are seen as perfect (symmetrical) will be non-polar if the surrounding elements are the same. These are:

AX2-linear

AX3-trigonal planar

AX4-tetrahedral

AX5-trigonal bipyramidal

AX2E3-linear

AX6-octahedral

AX4E2- square planar

2. The compound has only carbons and hydrogens

3. A non-metal is by itself or connected to copies of itself.


When the central element has lone pairs then we must use element dipole arrows and lone pair dipole arrows to determine polarity. 

Element dipole arrows point towards the more electronegative atom while lone pair dipole arrows point towards the lone pair.


All the compounds have electronegative atoms. Let us then look at the structures and check if polar bonds cancel out.


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