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Problem: Consider the following bond lengths:C-O 143 pmC=O 123 pmC≡O 109 pmIn the CO32- ion, all three C-O bonds have identical bond lengths of 136 pm. Why?

FREE Expert Solution

CO32- has resonance structures, each C-O bond can resonate into a C=O. 


Total valence electrons:


C   1 x 4 e- = 4 val. e-

O   3 x 6 e- = 18 val. e-

From -2 charge: add 2 e-

Total : 24 val. e-


The resonance structures of CO32- are:

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Problem Details

Consider the following bond lengths:

C-O 143 pm
C=O 123 pm
C≡O 109 pm

In the CO32- ion, all three C-O bonds have identical bond lengths of 136 pm. Why?

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What scientific concept do you need to know in order to solve this problem?

Our tutors have indicated that to solve this problem you will need to apply the Bond Energy concept. If you need more Bond Energy practice, you can also practice Bond Energy practice problems.

What textbook is this problem found in?

Our data indicates that this problem or a close variation was asked in Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach - Zumdahl 2nd Edition. You can also practice Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach - Zumdahl 2nd Edition practice problems.