Recall that the ** effective nuclear charge** is the force exerted by the nucleus onto an electron and is given by:

$\overline{){{\mathbf{Z}}}_{{\mathbf{eff}}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{Z}}{\mathbf{-}}{\mathbf{S}}}$

The shielding constant, **S = core electrons**

For the elements:

- Hydrogen: 1s
^{1 }^{ }→ core e^{-}=**0**- Z = 1, S = 0
**Z**_{eff}= 1 - 0 = 1

Among elements 1–18, which element or elements have the smallest effective nuclear charge if we use Equation 7.1 to calculate Z_{eff}? Which element or elements have the largest
effective nuclear charge?

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