Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheoryWorksheetSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Formation of sp3 hybrid orbitals.Which of the p orbitals do you think contributes the most in the mixing that leads to the right-most sp3 hybrid orbital in the second row of the figure?

Solution: Formation of sp3 hybrid orbitals.Which of the p orbitals do you think contributes the most in the mixing that leads to the right-most sp3 hybrid orbital in the second row of the figure?

Problem


An s orbital appears as a sphere centered on the x y z axes.  Each of the three p orbitals appears as two egg-shaped balloons connected end-to-end, centered on the x y z origin.  The p x orbital lies on the x-axis, the p y orbital is on the y-axis, and the p z orbital is on the z-axis. The one s and three p orbitals hybridize to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals.  Each hybrid appears as a small egg-shaped lobe attached to a large egg-shaped lobe.  Each sp3 hybrid is arranged toward a different point of a pyramid, which when shown together (large lobes only) appears as four lobes in the shape of a pyramid, separated by 109.5 degree angles.

Formation of sp3 hybrid orbitals.


Which of the p orbitals do you think contributes the most in the mixing that leads to the right-most sp3 hybrid orbital in the second row of the figure?

Solution

The sp3 orbital that the problem is pertaining to is the one shown below:


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