Alkali metals react vigorously with water to produce their hydroxides and hydrogen gas.
2 M(s) + 2 H2O(l) → 2 MOH(aq) + H2(g)
M represents any alkali metal from Li to Cs.
Elemental cesium reacts more violently with water than does elemental sodium. Which of the following best explains this difference in reactivity?
(i) Sodium has greater metallic character than does cesium.
(ii) The first ionization energy of cesium is less than that of sodium.
(iii) The electron affinity of sodium is smaller than that of cesium.
(iv) The effective nuclear charge for cesium is less than that of sodium.
(v) The atomic radius of cesium is smaller than that of sodium.
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