Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Explain the variation in ionization energies of carbon, as displayed in the graph.

Solution: Explain the variation in ionization energies of carbon, as displayed in the graph.

Problem

A line graph has ionization number on the X-axis, ranging from 1 to 6 with intervals every 1, and ionization energy of carbon (kilojoules per mole) on the Y-axis, ranging from 10,000 to 50,000 with intervals every 10,000.  Data are summarized approximately as follows: An ionization number of 1 correlates with an ionization energy of carbon of 2000 kJ/mol; an ionization number of 2 correlates with an ionization energy of carbon of 2500 kJ/mol; an ionization number of 3 correlates with an ionization energy of carbon of 5000 kJ/mol; an ionization number of 4 correlates with an ionization energy of carbon of 7000 kJ/mol; an ionization number of 5 correlates with an ionization energy of carbon of 38000 kJ/mol; an ionization number of 6 correlates with an ionization energy of carbon of 48000 kJ/mol.

Explain the variation in ionization energies of carbon, as displayed in the graph.

Solution

We have to explain the trend of ionization energies of carbon.


To determine why the fifth ionization energy of carbon is so high, we need to determine which of the ions is most difficult to remove an electron from.

Ionization energy (I. E.) is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.

First I.E. corresponds to removing the first valence electron from a neutral atom.

Second I.E. refers to removing a second electron.

 Third I.E. refers to removing the third electron.

ionization energies further up are referred to as which electron is being removed: fourth, fifth, etc.

Solution BlurView Complete Written Solution