Recall: The enthalpy of reaction (ΔH˚rxn) can be calculated from the reactants' and products' enthalpy of formation (∆H˚f) using the equation:
Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide. Instead of melting, solid carbon dioxide sublimes according to the equation: CO2(s) → CO2(g). When dry ice is added to warm water, heat from the water causes the dry ice to sublime more quickly. The evaporating carbon dioxide produces a dense fog often used to create special effects. In a simple dry ice fog machine, dry ice is added to warm water in a Styrofoam cooler. The dry ice produces fog until it evaporates away, or until the water gets too cold to sublime the dry ice quickly enough. Suppose that a small Styrofoam cooler holds 15.0 L of water heated to 86 °C. Use standard enthalpies of formation to calculate the change in enthalpy for dry ice sublimation. (The ΔH˚f for CO2(s) is –427.4 kJ/mol)
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