The relationship between internal energy, heat, and work is shown in the following equation:
ΔU = internal energy, J
q = heat, J
w = work, J
Before calculating internal energy, we have to identify heat (q) and work (w) first.
For heat, q:
▪ + q → if the system gains, takes in, or absorbs heat or energy
▪ – q → if the system loses, evolves, gives off, or releases heat or energy
For work, w:
▪ + w → work is done on the system by the surroundings (volume: compresses)
▪ – w → work is done by the system on the surroundings (volume: expands)
For the energy exchange given, -ΔEsys = + Δ Esurr.
Consider these fictitious internal energy gauges for a chemical system and its surroundings:
Which diagram best represents the energy gauges for the same system and surroundings following an energy exchange in which ΔEsys is negative?
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