• Strong electrolytes: dissociate completely in water; include soluble ionic salts, strong acids, and bases
a. Ionic salts: those that follow the rules of being soluble in solubility rules**
b. Strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HClO3
c. Strong bases: Group 1A and 2A (Ca and lower) metals paired with OH–, H–, O2–, or NH2–
• Weak electrolytes: doesn’t dissociate completely in water; include weak acids and bases
a. Weak acids: include HF, HC2H3O2, HNO2, H2CO3, H3PO4
b. Weak bases: Be(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, NH3, NH4OH
• Nonelectrolytes: doesn’t dissociate at all; include molecular compounds
a. Alcohols: composed of carbon and hydrogen with a –OH group
b. Sugars: for example C6H12O6 (glucose) and C12H22O11 (sucrose)
c. Water (H2O)
•Soluble Ionic Compounds:
▪Group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.) and Ammonium ion (NH4+) are soluble
▪ Nitrates (NO3-), Acetates (CH3COO- or C2H3O2-), and most Perchlorates (ClO4-) are soluble
▪ Cl-, Br-, and I- are soluble except when paired with Ag+, Pb2+, Cu+, Hg22+
▪ Sulfates (SO42-) are soluble except those of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Ag+, and Pb2+
• Insoluble Ionic Compounds:
▪ Hydroxides (OH-) and Sulfides (S2-) are insoluble except when with Group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.) and ammonium ion (NH4+) and Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+
▪ Carbonates (CO32-) and Phosphates (PO43-) are insoluble except when with Group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.) and ammonium ion (NH4+)
HgCl2 is, therefore, a strong electrolyte. It would dissociate completely in solution as:
HgCl2(aq) ⇋ Hg2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)
The equilibrium constant for the reaction Hg2+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq) ⇌ HgCl2(aq) is 1.6 × 1013. Is HgCl2 a strong electrolyte or a weak electrolyte? What are the concentrations of Hg2+ and Cl– in a 0.015-M solution of HgCl2?
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