When a reaction mechanism is given, the rate law can be determined using the slow step in the reaction mechanism.
▪rate law only involves the reactants
▪ the coefficients of the reactants in the slow step are the order of the reaction with respect to that reactant
▪ Rate Law has a general form of:
2H2SO4⟶ H 3 O + + HSO4 - + SO3 [fast]
SO 3 + C6H6⟶ H(C6H5+)SO3 - [slow]
H(C6H5+)SO3- + HSO 4-⟶ C6H5SO3- + H2SO4 [fast]
C6H5SO3 - + H3O +⟶ C6H5SO3H + H2O [fast]
Sulfonation of benzene has the following mechanism:
(1) 2H2SO4 ⟶ H3O+ + HSO4- + SO3 [fast]
(2) SO3 + C6H6 ⟶ H(C6H5+)SO3- [slow]
(3) H(C6H5+)SO3- + HSO4- ⟶ C6H5SO3- + H2SO4 [fast]
(4) C6H5SO3- + H3O+ ⟶ C6H5SO3H + H2O [fast]
(b) Write the overall rate law in terms of the initial rate of the reaction.
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Our data indicates that this problem or a close variation was asked in Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change - Silberberg 8th Edition. You can also practice Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change - Silberberg 8th Edition practice problems.