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Sulfonation of benzene has the following mechanism:

(1) 2H_{2}SO_{4} ⟶ H_{3}O^{+} + HSO_{4}^{-} + SO_{3} [fast]

(2) SO_{3} + C_{6}H_{6} ⟶ H(C_{6}H_{5}^{+})SO_{3}^{- } [slow]

(3) H(C_{6}H_{5}^{+})SO_{3}^{-} + HSO_{4}^{-} ⟶ C_{6}H_{5}SO_{3}^{-} + H_{2}SO_{4} [fast]

(4) C_{6}H_{5}SO_{3}^{-} + H_{3}O^{+} ⟶ C_{6}H_{5}SO_{3}H + H_{2}O [fast]

(a) Write an overall equation for the reaction.

Reaction Mechanism

Reaction Mechanism

Reaction Mechanism

Reaction Mechanism