The automobile fuel called E85 consists of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. E85 can be used in so-called flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), which can use gasoline, ethanol, or a mix as fuels. Assume that gasoline consists of a mixture of octanes (different isomers of C8H18), that the average heat of combustion of C8H18(l) is 5400 kJ/mol, and that gasoline has an average density of 0.70 g/mL. The density of ethanol is 0.79 g/mL.
(a) By using the information given as well as data in Appendix C, compare the energy produced by combustion of 1.0 L of gasoline and of 1.0 L of ethanol.
(b) Assume that the density and heat of combustion of E85 can be obtained by using 85% of the values for ethanol and 15% of the values for gasoline. How much energy could be released by the combustion of 1.0 L of E85?
(c) How many gallons of E85 would be needed to provide the same energy as 40 gal of gasoline?
(d) If gasoline costs $3.88 per gallon in the United States, what is the break-even price per gallon of E85 if the same amount of energy is to be delivered?
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