We are being asked to determine the conditions when q (heat) and w (work) are negative (-).
Recall the heat, q and work, w of the system are used to calculate the internal energy (ΔE or ΔU) of a system.
The relationship between internal energy, heat, and work is shown in the following equation:
ΔU = internal energy, J
q = heat, J
w = work, J
We can identify the sign for q and w by knowing its source or direction: the system or the surroundings.
Under what conditions will the quantities q and w be negative numbers?
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