Explain what happens if a system at equilibrium is subject to one of the following changes and why:

The temperature is raised.

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Explain what happens if a system at equilibrium is subject to one of the following changes and why:

The volume is decreased.

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Explain what happens if a system at equilibrium is subject to one of the following changes and why:

A solid product is added.

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Explain what happens if a system at equilibrium is subject to one of the following changes and why:

The concentration of a reactant is increased.

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For the reaction A → B, the ratio of products to reactants at equilibrium is always the same number, no matter how much A or B is initially present. Interestingly, in contrast, the ratio of products to reactants for the reaction C → 2D does depend on how much of C and D you have initially.

Explain this observation. Which ratio is independent of the starting amounts of C and D?

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Solve each of the expressions for x using the quadratic formula and the x is small approximation. In which of the following expressions is the x is small approximation valid?

x^{2}/(0.01 - x) = 1.3 x 10^{–4}

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Solve each of the expressions for x using the quadratic formula and the x is small approximation. In which of the following expressions is the x is small approximation valid?

x^{2}/(0.2 - x) = 1.3 x 10^{–4}

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Solve each of the expressions for x using the quadratic formula and the x is small approximation. In which of the following expressions is the x is small approximation valid?

x^{2}/(0.2 - x) = 1.3

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x^{2}/(0.2 - x) = 1.3 x 10^{4}

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The reactions shown here can be combined to make the overall reaction C(s) + H_{2}O(g) ⇌ CO(g) + H_{2}(g) by reversing some and/or dividing all the coefficients by a number.**a.** C(s) + O_{2}( g) ⇌ CO_{2}(g); K = 1.363 x 10^{69}**b.** 2H_{2}(g) + O_{2}(g) ⇌ 2H_{2}O(g); K = 1.389 x 10^{80}**c.** 2CO(g) + O_{2}(g) ⇌ 2CO_{2}(g); K = 1.363 10^{69}

Determine the value of K.

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The reactions shown here can be combined to make the overall
reaction C(s) + H_{2}O(g) ⇌ CO(g) + H_{2}(g) by reversing some
and/or dividing all the coefficients by a number.**a.** C(s) + O_{2}( g) ⇌ CO_{2}(g); K = 1.363 x 10^{69}**b.** 2H_{2}(g) + O_{2}(g) ⇌ 2H_{2}O(g); K = 1.389 x 10^{80}**c.** 2CO(g) + O_{2}(g) ⇌ 2CO_{2}(g); K = 1.363 10^{69}

Select the correct formula you would use to determine K.

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Consider the reaction: N_{2}(g) + 3H_{2}(g) → 2NH_{3}(g)

If some hydrogen is added, before the reaction shifts, will the reaction have to shift forward or backward to retain equilibrium? Explain.

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Consider the reaction: N_{2}(g) + 3H_{2}(g) → 2NH_{3}(g)

If some hydrogen is added, before the reaction shifts, will Q be larger or smaller than K? Why?

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Consider the reaction: N_{2}(g) + 3H_{2}(g) → 2NH_{3}(g)

Write the equilibrium constant expression for this reaction.

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Consider the reaction: A(g) ⇌ 2B(g). The graph plots the concentrations of A and B as a function of time at a constant temperature.

What is the equilibrium constant for this reaction
at this temperature?

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Consider the reaction
A(g) ⇌ B(g). The images shown here illustrate equilibrium mixtures of A (red) and g (black) at three different temperatures.

At which temperature is the equilibrium
constant the largest?

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You may want to reference(Pages 693 - 702) section 15.8 while completing this problem.

Consider the following reaction: I_{2}(g) + Cl_{2}(g) ⇌ 2ICl(g), K_{p} = 81.9 (at 25 ^{o}C)

A reaction mixture at 25^{o}C initially contains P_{I2} = 0.160 atm, P_{Cl2} = 0.160 atm, and P_{ICl} = 0.00 atm. Find the equilibrium partial pressure of ICl at this temperature.

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You may want to reference(Pages 693 - 702) section 15.8 while completing this problem.

Consider the following reaction: I_{2}(g) + Cl_{2}(g) ⇌ 2ICl(g), K_{p} = 81.9 (at 25 ^{o}C)

A reaction mixture at 25^{o}C initially contains P_{I2} = 0.160 atm, P_{Cl2} = 0.160 atm, and P_{ICl} = 0.00 atm. Find the equilibrium partial pressure of Cl_{2} at this temperature.

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You may want to reference(Pages 693 - 702) section 15.8 while completing this problem.

Consider the following reaction: I_{2}(g) + Cl_{2}(g) ⇌ 2ICl(g), K_{p} = 81.9 (at 25 ^{o}C)

A reaction mixture at 25^{o}C initially contains P_{I2} = 0.160 atm, P_{Cl2} = 0.160 atm, and P_{ICl} = 0.00 atm. Find the equilibrium partial pressure of I_{2} at this temperature.

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You may want to reference(Pages 693 - 702)Section 15.8 while completing this problem.

Diatomic iodine (I_{2}) decomposes at high temperature to form I atoms according to the reaction: I_{2}(g) ⇌ 2I(g), K_{c} = 0.011 at 1200 ^{o}C

In an equilibrium mixture, the concentration of I_{2} is 0.18 *M*. What is the equilibrium concentration of I?

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You may want to reference(Pages 685 - 693) Section 15.7 while completing this problem.

Consider the reaction and its equilibrium constant: N_{2}O_{4}(g) ⇌ 2NO_{2}(g); Kc = 5.85 x 10^{–3} (at some temperature)

A reaction mixture contains [NO_{2}] = 0.0251 *M* and [N_{2}O_{4}] = 0.0331 *M*. Determine the direction in which the reaction will proceed.

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You may want to reference(Pages 685 - 693) Section 15.7 while completing this problem.

Consider the reaction and its equilibrium constant: N_{2}O_{4}(g) ⇌ 2NO_{2}(g); Kc = 5.85 x 10^{–3} (at some temperature)

A reaction mixture contains [NO_{2}] = 0.0251 *M* and [N_{2}O_{4}] = 0.0331 *M*. Calculate Q_{c} at the given concentrations.

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You may want to reference (Pages 693 - 702) Section 15.8 while completing this problem.

Consider the reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen disulfide: 2H_{2}S(g) ⇌ 2H_{2}(g) + S_{2}(g), K_{c} = 1.67 x 10^{–7} at 800 ^{o}C. A 0.500 L reaction vessel initially contains 0.125 mol of H_{2}S and 0.125 mol of H_{2} at 800 ^{o}C. Find the equilibrium concentration of [S_{2}].

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You may want to reference (Pages 693 - 702) Section 15.8 while completing this problem.

The reaction N_{2}(g) + O_{2}(g) ⇌ 2NO(g) is carried out at a temperature at which K_{c} = 0.060. The reaction mixture starts with only the product, [NO] = 0.0400 *M*, and no reactants. Find the equilibrium concentrations of NO at equilibrium.

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You may want to reference (Pages 693 - 702) Section 15.8 while completing this problem.

The reaction N_{2}(g) + O_{2}(g) ⇌ 2NO(g) is carried out at a temperature at which K_{c} = 0.060. The reaction mixture starts with only the product, [NO] = 0.0400 *M*, and no reactants. Find the equilibrium concentrations of O_{2} at equilibrium.

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