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Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Jules Bruno

What are ppm and ppb?

In this lesson, we’ll learn the difference between parts per million and parts per billion. 

What is parts per million (ppm)?

Parts per million, which is abbreviated ppm, represents the mass of our solute which is a smaller portion of our solution divided by the mass of solution multiplied 106. 

Here, in this example we have 12.5 grams of carbon dioxide dissolved in 1750 g of water. This is the smaller amount, so this represents our solute. This is our much greater amount so this represents our solvent. Remember, your solution is your solute plus your solvent together. Once we plug this in, we’ll put the grams of solute on top divided by grams of solute plus grams of solvent on the bottom times 106. This gives us our parts per million of 7092.2 parts per million.

What is parts per billion (ppb)?

When it comes to parts per billion, which is abbreviated ppb, that’s almost the same exact formula. It’s still mass of solute divided by mass of solution. But because we’re dealing with billions here, it’d now be times 109. We’re going to say here we’re dealing with the same exact numbers, so our solute is still the carbon dioxide and our solvent is still the water. We plug in the same numbers but now we multiply it by 109 because again, we’re dealing with billions. In this case, it gives us 7.0922 x 106 parts per billion.

Summary

Just remember, there’s similarities between both of these terms. Parts per million deals with 106whereas parts per billion deals with 109.


Jules Bruno

Jules felt a void in his life after his English degree from Duke, so he started tutoring in 2007 and got a B.S. in Chemistry from FIU. He’s exceptionally skilled at making concepts dead simple and helping students in covalent bonds of knowledge.


Additional Problems
A 2.90 L sample of water contains 217.5 μg of Lead (II) ions. Calculate the concentration of lead in ppm.A) 7.5 X 10‐1 ppmB) 7.5 X 10‐2 ppmC) 7.5 X 10‐3 ppmD) 7.5 X 10‐4 ppmE) 7.5 X 10+4 ppm
The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solutionIn the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueoussolutions.a. 5.0 ppb Hg in H2O
The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solutionIn the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueoussolutions.b. 1.0 ppb CHCl3 in H2O
The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solutionIn the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueoussolutions.c. 10.0 ppm As in H2O
A 1.00 L sample of water contains 0.0036 g of Cl - ions. Determine the concentration of chloride ions in ppm if the density of the solution is 1.00 g/mL.A) 1.8 ppm      B) 5.4 ppm      C) 2.8 ppm      D) 3.6 ppm      E) 7.2 ppm
An ore contains 2.87 g of silver per ton of ore (1 ton = 2,000 lbs). What is the concentration of silver in ppm?
Seawater contains 8.0×10−3 g Sr2+ per kilogram of water. What is the concentration of Sr2+ measured in ppm?
To effectively stop polymerization, certain inhibitors require the presence of a small amount of O2. At equilibrium with 1 atm of air, the concentration of O2 dissolved in the monomer acrylic acid (CH2=CHCOOH) is 1.64×10−3 M.(d) What is the concentration in ppm? (Pure acrylic acid is 14.6 M; PO2 in air is 0.2095 atm.)
A solution of SO2 in water contains 0.00023 g of SO2 per liter of solution. What is the concentration of SO2 in ppb?
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrocarbons with all H atoms replaced by F atoms, have very weak cohesive forces. One interesting consequence of this property is that a live mouse can breathe while submerged in O2-saturated PFCs.(b) According to one source, kH for O2 in water at 25°C is 756.7 L·atm/mol. What is the solubility of O2 in water at 25°C in ppm?
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) sets a limit for mercury-a toxin to the central nervous system-at 0.002 ppm by mass. Water suppliers must periodically test their water to ensure that mercury levels do not exceed this limit. Suppose water becomes contaminated with mercury at twice the legal limit (0.004 ppm).How much of this water would have to be consumed for someone to ingest 51 mg of mercury?
Gold occurs in seawater at an average concentration of 1.1×10−2 ppb. How many liters of seawater must be processed to recover 1 troy ounce of gold, assuming 81.5% efficiency (d of seawater = 1.025 g/mL; 1 troy ounce = 31.1 g)?
The concentration of gold in seawater has been reported to be between 5 ppt (parts per trillion) and 50 ppt. Assuming that seawater contains 13 ppt of gold, calculate the number of grams of gold contained in 1.0 x 103 gal of seawater.
The maximum allowable concentration of lead in drinking water is 9.0 ppb.How many grams of lead are in a swimming pool containing 9.0 ppb lead in 72 m3 of water?
Wastewater from a cement factory contains 0.25 g of Ca2+ ions and 0.056 g of Mg2+ ions per 100.0 L of solution. The solution density is 1.001 g/mL. Calculate the Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in ppm (by mass).
A simple device used for estimating the concentration of total dissolved solids in an aqueous solution works by measuring the electrical conductivity of the solution. The method assumes that equal concentrations of different solids give approximately the same conductivity, and that the conductivity is proportional to concentration. The table below gives some actual electrical conductivities (in arbitrary units) for solutions of selected solids at the indicated concentrations (in ppm by mass):(c) Based on this method, an aqueous CaCl2 solution has a conductivity of 14.0 units. Calculate its mole fraction and molality.
Glucose makes up about 0.10% by mass of human blood.Calculate this concentration in ppm.
A water sample contains the pollutant chlorobenzene with a concentration of 16 ppb (by mass). What volume of this water contains 5.01×102 mg of chlorobenzene? (Assume a density of 1.00 g/mL.)
A 2.950 × 10−2 M solution of NaCl in water is at 20.0°C. The sample was created by dissolving a sample of NaCl in water and then bringing the volume up to 1.000 L. It was determined that the volume of water needed to do this was 999.2 mL . The density of water at 20.0°C is 0.9982 g/mL.Part A. Calculate the molality of the salt solution. Express your answer to four significant figures and include the appropriate units.m NaCl =Part B. Calculate the mole fraction of salt in this solution. Express the mole fraction to four significant figures.χ NaCl =Part C. Calculate the concentration of the salt solution in percent by mass. Express your answer to four significant figures and include the appropriate units.percent by mass NaCl =Part D. Calculate the concentration of the salt solution in parts per million. Express your answer as an integer to four significant figures and include the appropriate units.parts per million NaCl =
A 4.55 L sample of solution contains 0.115 g of sodium ions. Determine the concentration of sodium ions in ppm if the density of the solution is 1.00 g/mL.A. 52.3 ppmB. 13.2 ppmC. 12.7 ppmD. 25.3 ppmE. 36.5 ppm
Fish need at least 4 ppm dissolved O2 for survival.What is this concentration in mol/L?
The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solutionIn the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueoussolutions.d. 0.10 ppm DDT (C14H9Cl5) in H2O
The maximum allowable concentration of lead in drinking water is 9.0  ppb.Calculate the molarity of lead in a 9.0- ppb solution.
A solution of SO2 in water contains 0.00023 g of SO2 per liter of solution.What is the concentration of SO2 in ppm?
How many grams of chlorine gas are needed to make 3.90 x 106 g of a solution that is 2.00 ppm chlorine by mass? 
In clinical applications, the unit parts per million (ppm) is used to express very small concentrations of solute, where 1 ppm is equivalent to 1 mg of solute per 1 L of solution. Calculate the concentration in parts per million for each of the following solutions. a) There are 41 µg of calcium in a total volume of 69 mL. b) There is 0.91 mg of caffeine in a total volume of 131 mL. c) There is 0.51 mg of trace particles in a total volume of 99 dL solution.
The maximum concentration set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for lead in drinking water is 15 ppb and for cadmium is 5.0 ppb. What are these concentrations in milligrams per liter? What are these concentrations in moles/L? Express your answers using two significant figures separated by a comma. 
Decide it is time to clean your pool since summer is quickly approaching. Your pool maintenance guide specifies that the chlorine, CI2, concentration of the pool should be between 1 and 3 ppm. In order to determine if your pool is safe to swim in, you send a sample of pool water to a chemist for analysis of the CI2 content. The chemist reports a chlorine concentration of 2.17 times 10 -5 M. Convert the concentration of CI2 to parts- per- million (ppm).