Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Phase Diagrams show what effect temperature and pressure have on a pure substance in a closed system without any air.

The Phase Diagram

Concept #1: The Properties of the 3 Phases of Matter 

Concept #2: Understanding the Phase Diagram

The phase diagram looks at the transition of matter between the phases of solid, liquid and gas as temperature and pressure are affected.

Practice:

Answer the following questions based on the image above: 

a. At what temperature can we no longer tell the difference between the liquid and the gas? _____________

 b. Which point represents an equilibrium between the solid, liquid and gas phase?    _____________

 c. Which line segment represents an equilibrium between fusion and freezing? _____________

 d. Which line segment represents an equilibrium between sublimation and deposition? _____________

 e. Which line segment represents an equilibrium between condensation and vaporization? _____________

 f. What is the normal freezing point of this unknown substance? _____________

 g. What is the normal boiling point of this unknown substance? _____________

Additional Problems
What does letter D represent?  a. fusion curve b. triple point c. sublimation point d. melting point e. critical point
What is the name of the process of direct conversion of a solid to a gas? a) crystallization b) sublimation c) vaporization d) condensation e) deposition
The graph shows how the vapor pressure of a liquid changes with temperature. Select the choice that best indicates the degree of correctness of this statement: "The normal boiling point of the liquid is 78°C." (A) The statement is true. (B) The statement is probably true; additional data would be needed for a final decision. (C) The statement is probably false; additional data would be needed for a final decision. (D) The statement is false.
Based on the phase diagram shown below, how will the melting point of the substance change if the pressure is increased above 1 atm? A)      The melting point will decrease. B)      The melting point will remain the same. C)      The melting point will increase. D)      The substance will not melt at pressures of 1 atm and above; instead, the solid sublimes to form the gas phase.
Draw and label a phase change diagram.
A pure substance can exist simultaneously as a solid, liquid, and gas only at a) no point b) more information is needed c) any point d) the triple point e) the critical point  
In the phase diagram of a substance shown  to the right, fill in the blanks to make correct statements. a) Moving from point B to C results in a transition from _______ phase to ________ phase. b) At point _______ all three phases of solid, liquid, and gas coexist in equilibrium. c) At a higher pressure and temperature than point ______ the substance becomes a supercritical fluid. d) At point F, ______ phase and ______ phase coexist in equilibrium. 
Consider the phase diagram shown below, starting at 0.4 atm and 20°C what phase change will occur if we decrease the temperature to -100°C?  a) Vaporization b) Condensation c) Sublimation d) Deposition e) Melting  
The phase diagram for a compound is shown below. Describe the phases and transitions as the pressure is increased from 0.5 atm to 1.2 atm at a constant temperature of 75 °C.  
In the phase diagram, which transition represents the condensation of a gas into a liquid? (A) B to A (B) D to B (C) C to D (D) A to D
Which of the following involves a change in temperature during the phase transition?   a. deposition of carbon dioxide b. fusion of ethanol c. condensation of ammonia d. all of the above e. none of the above
A sample is at the temperature and pressure indicated by point (c) on the phase diagram below. What phase is present after the pressure is increased to the critical pressure at constant temperature? A.  Gas B.  Liquid C.  Solid D.  Supercritical fluid E.  More than one phase is present
The phase diagram of CO2 is shown here. It's in Russian but you know enough science to be able to translate the words.
For the choices below, what is the normal boiling point of this substance?  1. 230°C 2. 100°C 3. 200°C 4. 150°C What is the critical pressure for this substance? 1. 50 atm 2. 0.08 atm 3. 44 atm 4. 25 atm 5. 1 atm 6. >100 atm
The phase diagram for a substance is depicted to the below; the substance is a solid at room temperature conditions, 1.0 atm and 20°C. You wish to sublimate the solid, what change(s) must you make in order for this to occur? a) Increase the temperature. b) Decrease the pressure. c) Decrease the temperature, then decrease the pressure. d) Decrease the pressure, then increase the temperature. e) Increase the temperature, then increase the pressure.
Give the change in condition to go from a liquid to a gas.   A) increase heat or reduce pressure B) increase heat or increase pressure C) cool or reduce pressure D) cool or increase pressure E) none of the above 
You have a sample of Xe at 164 K and 760 torr. You reduce the pressure to 250 torr. According to Figure 1, what happens? A. It melts. B. It vaporizes. C. It condenses. D. It solidifies. E. Nothing. No phase change occurs.
Consider the phase diagram shown.  Choose the statement below that is TRUE.   A) The triple point of this substance occurs at a temperature of 31°C. B) At 10 atm of pressure, there is no temperature where the liquid phase of this substance would exist. C) The solid phase of this substance is higher in density than the liquid phase. D) The line separating the solid and liquid phases represents the ΔHvap. E) None of the above are true.  
Consider the phase diagram below. How many distinct solid phases are depicted? 1. 1 2. 3 3. 4 4. 2
According to Figure 1, what is the normal boiling point of Xe? A. < 152 K B. 161 K C. 152 K D. 166 K E. > 166 K
Answer the following questions based on the following phase diagram given below. a. At what temperature can we no longer tell the difference between the liquid and the gas? _____________ b. Which point represents an equilibrium between the solid, liquid, and gas phase?    _____________ c. Which line segment represents an equilibrium between fusion and freezing? _____________ d. Which line segment represents an equilibrium between sublimation and deposition? _____________ e. Which line segment represents an equilibrium between condensation and vaporization? _____________ f. What is the normal freezing point of this unknown substance? _____________ g. What is the normal boiling point of this unknown substance? _____________
Sulfur can exist as a gas, a liquid, or as one of two solid states: rhombic and monoclinic. A phase diagram for sulfur is shown below: a. What is (are) the thermodynamically-stable phase(s) of sulfur at room temperature and pressure (i.e. 1.0 atm at 25°C)?     b. Which state of sulfur is more dense: rhombic, monoclinic, or liquid?
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points a.
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points b.
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points c.
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points d.
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points e.
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points f.
Consider the phase diagram shown below .Identify the phase present at points g.
Nitrogen has a normal boiling point of 77.3 K and a melting point (at 1 atm) of 63.1 K. Its critical temperature is 126.2 K and critical pressure is 2.55 104 torr. It has a triple point at 63.1 K and 94.0 torr.Sketch the phase diagram for nitrogen to answer if nitrogen has a stable liquid phase at 1 atm.
Argon has a normal boiling point of 87.2 K and a melting point (at 1 atm) of 84.1 K. Its critical temperature is 150.8 K and critical pressure is 48.3 atm. It has a triple point at 83.7 K and 0.68 atm.Sketch the phase diagram to answer whether solid argon or liquid argon has the greater density?
The phase diagram for sulfur is shown below. The rhombic and monoclinic phases are two solid phases with different structures .Below what pressure will solid sulfur sublime?
The phase diagram for sulfur is shown below. The rhombic and monoclinic phases are two solid phases with different structures .Which of the two solid phases of sulfur is most dense?
The high-pressure phase diagram of ice is shown at the top of the next column. Notice that, under high pressure, ice can exist in several different solid forms .What is the density of ice II compared to ice I (the familiar form of ice.)
The high-pressure phase diagram of ice is shown at the top of the next column. Notice that, under high pressure, ice can exist in several different solid forms .Would ice III sink or float in liquid water?
The high-pressure phase diagram of ice is shown at the top of the next column. Notice that, under high pressure, ice can exist in several different solid forms .What three forms of ice are present at the triple point marked O?
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.Estimate the normal boiling point of the substance.
Examine the phase diagram for iodine shown in Figure 11.39 in the textbook.What phase transitions occur as you uniformly increase the pressure on a gaseous sample of iodine from 0.010 atm at 185 oC to 100 atm at 185 oC?
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the physical state of the substance under T = 150 K, P = 0.2 atm?
Carbon tetrachloride displays a triple point at 249.0 K and a melting point (at 1 atm) of 250.3 K.Which phase of carbon tetrachloride is more dense, the solid or the liquid?
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the temperature of the substance at the triple point?
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.Estimate the normal freezing point of the substance.
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the physical state of the substance under T = 100 K, P = 0.8 atm?
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the physical state of the substance under T = 300 K , P = 1.0 atm?
The phase diagram of a hypothetical substance is shown below. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the pressure of the substance at the triple point?
What is the significance of the critical point in a phase diagram?
Based on the phase diagram of CO2 shown in the figure, describe the phase changes that occur when the temperature of CO2 is increased from 190 K to 350 K at a constant pressure of 1 atm.
Why does the line that separates the gas and liquid phases end at the critical point?
What is the significance of the triple point in a phase diagram?
Could you measure the triple point of water by measuring the temperature in a vessel in which water vapor, liquid water, and ice are in equilibrium under one atmosphere of air?
The table below lists the density of O2 at various temperatures and at 1 atm. The normal melting point of O2 is 54 K. Temperature (K) Density (mol/L) 60 40.1 70 38.6 80 37.2 90 35.6 100 0.123 120 0.102 140 0.087 Over what temperature range is O2 a solid?
The table below lists the density of O2 at various temperatures and at 1 atm. The normal melting point of O2 is 54 K. Temperature (K) Density (mol/L) 60 40.1 70 38.6 80 37.2 90 35.6 100 0.123 120 0.102 140 0.087 Over what temperature range is O2 a liquid?
The table below lists the density of O2 at various temperatures and at 1 atm. The normal melting point of O2 is 54 K. Temperature (K) Density (mol/L) 60 40.1 70 38.6 80 37.2 90 35.6 100 0.123 120 0.102 140 0.087 Over what temperature range in the table is O2 a gas?
The table below lists the density of O2 at various temperatures and at 1 atm. The normal melting point of O2 is 54 K. Temperature (K) Density (mol/L) 60 40.1 70 38.6 80 37.2 90 35.6 100 0.123 120 0.102 140 0.087 Estimate the normal boiling point of O2.
Use the phase diagram for neon to answer the following questions: You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the approximate value of the normal melting point?
Use the phase diagram for neon to answer the following questions: You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.Below what pressure value will solid neon sublime?
Use the phase diagram for neon to answer the following questions: You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.At temperature T =-100 oC can neon be liquefied by compressing it?
Generic phase diagram for a pure substance. The green line is the sublimation curve, the blue line is the melting curve, and the red line is the vapor-pressure curve.Imagine that the pressure on the solid phase in the figure is decreased at constant temperature. If the solid eventually sublimes, what must be true about the temperature?
The density of a substance is greater in its solid phase than in its liquid phase.If the triple point in the phase diagram of the substance is below 1.0 atm, then which will necessarily be at a lower temperature, the triple point or the normal melting point?
Use the phase diagram of neon to answer the following questions. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What is the approximate value of the normal boiling point?
Use the phase diagram of neon to answer the following questions. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.What can you say about the strength of the intermolecular forces in neon and argon based on the critical points of Ne and Ar? (critical temperature (Ar) = 150.9  K, critical pressure (Ar) = 48.0  atm)
The fact that water on Earth can readily be found in all three states (solid, liquid, and gas) is in part a consequence of the fact that the triple point of water (T = 0.01 , P = 0.006 atm) falls within a range of temperatures and pressures found on Earth. Saturns largest moon, Titan, has a considerable amount of methane in its atmosphere. The conditions on the surface of Titan are estimated to be P = 1.6 atm and T = -178 . As seen from the phase diagram of methane given below, these conditions are not far from the triple point of methane, raising the tantalizing possibility that solid, liquid, and gaseous methane can be found on Titan. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.In what state would you expect to find methane on the surface of Titan?
The fact that water on Earth can readily be found in all three states (solid, liquid, and gas) is in part a consequence of the fact that the triple point of water (T = 0.01 , P = 0.006 atm) falls within a range of temperatures and pressures found on Earth. Saturns largest moon, Titan, has a considerable amount of methane in its atmosphere. The conditions on the surface of Titan are estimated to be P = 1.6 atm and T = -178 . As seen from the phase diagram of methane given below, these conditions are not far from the triple point of methane, raising the tantalizing possibility that solid, liquid, and gaseous methane can be found on Titan. You may want to reference (Pages 457 - 459) Section 11.6 while completing this problem.On moving upward through the atmosphere, the pressure will decrease. If we assume that the temperature of -178 oC does not change or fluctuate, what phase change would you expect to see as we move away from the surface?
What is a phase diagram?
At 25 gallium is a solid with a density of 5.91 g/cm3. Its melting point, 29.8 , is low enough that you can melt it by holding it in your hand . The density of liquid gallium just above the melting point is 6.1 g/cm3.Based on this information, what unusual feature would you expect to find in the phase diagram of gallium?
Label generic phase diagram’s important features.
What is the significance of crossing a line in a phase diagram?
A substance has a triple point at -24.5 oC and 225 mm Hg. What is most likely to happen to a solid sample of the substance as it is warmed from -35 oC to 0 oC at a pressure of 220 mm Hg?
A flask of water is connected to a vacuum pump. A few moments after the pump is turned on, the water begins to boil. After a few minutes, the water begins to freeze. Explain why these processes occur.
You may want to reference (Pages 456 - 459)Section 11.6 while completing this problem.Based on the phase diagram for methane below, what happens to methane as it is heated from −250 oC to 0 oC at a pressure of 10-2 atm?
A particular liquid crystalline substance has the phase diagram shown in the figure.By analogy with the phase diagram for a non-liquid crystalline substance (Section 11.6), identify the phase present in each area.
Explain what happens to a substance when it is heated in a closed container to its critical temperature.
Why does increasing the temperature cause a solid substance to change in succession from a solid to a liquid to a gas?
Complete this table describing the shape and volume of each phase.                             Shape           Volumefixed            Solid    ____            _____variable       Liquid   ____           _____                    Gas      ____           _____
Which of the following states of matter is classified as a condensed phase? a) solid b) liquid c) gas d) Both a and b e) Both a and b and c
Consider this phase diagram for carbon dioxide.a. In what phase is CO2 at 72 atm and 0 degree C? b. Starting from the point described above, what phase change would eventually result from a decrease in pressure?
A gas or vapor may be liquefied only at temperatures(A) equal to the normal boiling point.(B) above the normal boiling point.(C) above the critical temperature.(D) at or below the critical temperature.
The phase diagram for sulfur is shown below. The rhombic and monoclinic phases are two solid phases. Below what pressure will solid sulfur sublime? Express your answer using two significant figures.
The oxides of concern in a coal-burning power plant are sulfur oxides, not nitrogen oxides. The diagram for SO2 is shown below (not drawn to scale). a. What is the lowest temperature at which liquid SO 2 exists? b. Which is more dense: solid SO2 or liquid SO2? c. What is the normal melting point of SO2(s)? d. Suppose you start with a sample of SO 2 at 0.5 atm and -50°C, and decrease the pressure to 0.001 atm while maintaining the temperature at -50°C. What phase changes, if any, will occur? e. What acid do you expect to form if SO 2(g) is dissolved in water? ____________________ Explain your reasoning.
At 100oC and 1 atm, water is in which phase?a. solidb. liquidc. gasd. supercritical fluide. solid-liquid equilibriumf. liquid-gas equilibriumg. solid-gas equilibrium
Consider this phase diagram for carbon. Which phases are present at the lower triple point?a. diamondb. graphitec. gasd. liquid 
Consider this phase diagram for carbon dioxide in what phase is CO 2 at 4 atm and -10 °C? a. Solid b. Gas c. Liquid
A phase diagram is a pressure-temperature graph that shows the ranges of temperature and pressure over which each phase is stable. The phase diagram is divided into three regions, each region representing one stable phase: solid, liquid, or gas. There are three boundary lines that separate the phases from one another. These boundary lines represent the equilibrium between two phases. The point at which the three boundary lines intersect is called the triple point. All three phases can exist in equilibrium with each other at this point. Use the phase diagram for CO 2 and determine which of the following statements are correct. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. All three phases of CO2 exist simultaneously at the triple point. When the pressure is 1 atm, there is no temperature at which the liquid phase of CO  2 exists. CO2 forms a supercritical fluid at temperatures less than 31 degrees Celsius. CO2 is a gas under normal conditions of temperature and pressure. Movement across boundary line BO corresponds to a phase change. When the pressure is 4 atm and the temperature is more than -56.7 degrees Celsius, CO  2 exists as a solid.
Consider the following phase diagram and identify the process occurring as one goes from point C to point D. a. increasing temperature with a phase change from liquid to vapor b. increasing temperature with a phase change from solid to liquid c. increasing temperature with no phase change d. increasing temperature beyond the critical point e. increasing temperature with a phase change from solid to vapor
What is the process where molecules go directly from the solid phase to the gas phase? a. sublimation b. melting c. condensation d. deposition e. freezing
The direct change of a substance from a solid to a gas is called ____.a. evaporationb. sublimationc. condensationd. solidification
Superman can squeeze graphite (coal) to such a high pressure that it is transformed to diamond. Let’s consider this claim against the underlying science. The phase diagram for carbon is shown below. What pressure does Superman need to exert to change graphite into diamond at room temperature?
Consider the phase diagram below.  If the dashed line at 1 atm of pressure is followed from 100 to 500°C, what phase changes will occur (in order of increasing temperature)? A) condensation, followed by vaporization B) sublimation, followed by deposition C) vaporization, followed by deposition D) fusion, followed by vaporization E) No phase change will occur under the conditions specified.
Sketch the phase diagram:Which of the following statements is true about the phase diagram above?I. The solid is denser than the liquid.II. The melting point of the solid decreases as pressure is increased.III. Line AB represents fusion.IV. As the temperature is decreased from 200°C to 0°C at 0.9 atm, two phase changes occur.V. As the pressure is increased from 0.003 atm to 14 atm at 25°C, one phase change occurs.a) I, IIb) I, IVc) II, IVd) II, Ve) IV, V
Choose the answer that correctly assigns the labels on the phase. A) A = liquid, B = gas, C = solid, D = triple point B) A = gas, B = liquid, C = solid, D = critical point C) A = liquid, B = solid, C = gas, D = critical point D) A = gas, B = solid, C = liquid, D = triple point E) A = solid, B = gas, C = liquid, D = supercritical fluid
What factors cause changes between the liquid and gas state? Check all that apply.   a. A gas can be converted into a liquid by decreasing the pressure of a gas sample. b. A liquid can be converted to a gas by heating. c. A gas can be converted into a liquid by increasing the pressure of a gas sample. d. A liquid can be converted to a gas by cooling. e. A gas can be converted into a liquid by cooling. f. A gas can be converted into a liquid by heating.
What factors cause changes between the solid and liquid state? Check all that apply. a. A solid can be converted to a liquid by cooling. b. A liquid can be converted to a solid by cooling. c. A solid can be converted to a liquid by heating. d. A liquid can be converted to a solid by heating.  
Enter the critical temperature of water. 
Consider the phase diagram given below. What phases are present at points A through H? Identify the triple point, normal boiling point, normal freezing point, and critical point. Which phase is denser, solid or liquid?
The phase diagram for xenon is shown below.(b) Describe the phase changes that a sample of xenon undergoes at −115°C as it is compressed from 0.5 atm to 25 atm. (The critical pressure of xenon is 58 atm.)
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)How many triple points are in the phase diagram?
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)What phases are in equilibrium at each of the triple points?
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)What is the stable phase at 1 atm and 100. ˚C?
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)What are the normal melting point and the normal boiling point of sulfur?
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)Which is the densest phase?
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)At a pressure of 1.0 x 10 -5 atm, can rhombic sulfur sublime?
Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and monoclinic. Use the accompanying phase diagram for sulfur to answer the following questions. (The phase diagram is not to scale.)What phase changes occur when the pressure on a sample of sulfur at 100. ˚C is increased from 1.0 x 10-8 atm to 1500 atm?
Use Figure 12.10 to answer the following:(a) Carbon dioxide is sold in steel cylinders under a pressure of approximately 20 atm. Is there liquid CO2 in the cylinder at room temperature (∼20°C)? At 40°C? At −40°C? At −120°C?
Use the accompanying phase diagram for carbon to answer the question below.How many triple points are in the phase diagram?
Use Figure 12.10 to answer the following:(b) Carbon dioxide is also sold as solid chunks, called dry ice, in insulated containers. If the chunks are warmed by leaving them in an open container at room temperature, will they melt?
Use the accompanying phase diagram for carbon to answer the question below.What phases can coexist at each triple point?
Use the accompanying phase diagram for carbon to answer the question below.What happens if graphite is subjected to very high pressures at room temperature?
Use Figure 12.10 to answer the following:(c) If a container is nearly filled with dry ice and then sealed and warmed to room temperature, will the dry ice melt?
Use the accompanying phase diagram for carbon to answer the question below.If we assume that the density increases with an increase in pressure, which is more dense, graphite or diamond?
Like most substances, bromine exists in one of the three typical phases. Br  2 has a normal melting point of -7.2 ˚C and a normal boiling point of 59 ˚C. The triple point for Br2 is -7.3 ˚C and 40 torr, and the critical point is 320 ˚C and 100 atm. Using this information, sketch a phase diagram for bromine indicating the points described above. Based on your phase diagram, order the three phases from least dense to most dense. What is the stable phase of Br2 at room temperature and 1 atm? Under what temperature conditions can liquid bromine never exist? What phase changes occur as the temperature of a sample of bromine at 0.10 atm is increased from -50 ˚C to 200 ˚C?
Use Figure 12.10 to answer the following:(d) If dry ice is compressed at a temperature below its triple point, will it melt?
The melting point of a fictional substance X is 225 ˚C at 10.0 atm. If the density of the solid phase of X is 2.67 g/cm3 and the density of the liquid phase is 2.78 g/cm 3 at 10.0 atm, predict whether the normal melting point of X will be less than, equal to, or greater than 225 ˚C. Explain.
Consider the following data for xenon:Triple point:                       -121 ˚C, 280 torrNormal melting point:       -112 ˚CNormal boiling point:        -107 ˚CWhich is more dense, Xe(s) or Xe(l)? How do the melting point and boiling point of xenon depend on pressure?
Explain why an egg cooks more slowly in boiling water in Denver than in New York City. (Hint: Consider the effect of temperature on reaction rate and the effect of pressure on boiling point.)
The critical point of NH 3 is 132 ˚C and 111 atm, and the critical point of N 2 is -147 ˚C and 34 atm. Which of these substances cannot be liquefied at room temperature no matter how much pressure is applied? Explain.
Choose the statements that correctly describe the following phase diagram.a. If the temperature is raised from 50 K to 400 K at a pressure of 1 atm, the substance boils at approximately 185 K.b. The liquid phase of this substance cannot exist under conditions of 2 atm at any temperature.c. The triple point occurs at approximately 165 K.d. At a pressure of 1.5 atm, the melting point of the substance is approximately 370 K.e. The critical point occurs at approximately 1.7 atm and 410 K.
Bismuth is used to calibrate instruments employed in high-pressure studies because it has several well-characterized crystalline phases. Its phase diagram (below) shows the liquid phase and five solid phases that are stable above 1 katm (1000 atm) and up to 300°C. Which solid phases are stable at 25°C?
Bismuth is used to calibrate instruments employed in high-pressure studies because it has several well-characterized crystalline phases. Its phase diagram (below) shows the liquid phase and five solid phases that are stable above 1 katm (1000 atm) and up to 300°C. Which phase is stable at 50 katm and 175°C?
Bismuth is used to calibrate instruments employed in high-pressure studies because it has several well-characterized crystalline phases. Its phase diagram (below) shows the liquid phase and five solid phases that are stable above 1 katm (1000 atm) and up to 300°C. As the pressure is reduced from 100 to 1 katm at 200°C, what phase transitions does bismuth undergo?
What is the normal boiling point of this compound?  
Bismuth is used to calibrate instruments employed in high-pressure studies because it has several well-characterized crystalline phases. Its phase diagram (below) shows the liquid phase and five solid phases that are stable above 1 katm (1000 atm) and up to 300°C. What phases are present at each of the triple points?
From the phase diagram for water (Figure 10.31), determine the state of water at: (a) 35 °C and 85 kPa
The density of liquid NH3 is 0.64 g/mL; the density of gaseous NH3 at STP is 0.0007 g/mL. Explain the difference between the densities of these two phases.
In terms of their bulk properties, how do liquids and solids differ? How are they similar?
In terms of the kinetic molecular theory, in what ways are liquids similar to solids? In what ways are liquids different from solids?
In terms of the kinetic molecular theory, in what ways are liquids similar to gases? In what ways are liquids different from gases?
Explain why liquids assume the shape of any container into which they are poured, whereas solids are rigid and retain their shape.
The triple point of air-free water is defined as 273.16 K. Why is it important that the water be free of air?
From the phase diagram for water (Figure 10.31), determine the state of water at: (b) −15 °C and 40 kPa
From the phase diagram for water (Figure 10.31), determine the state of water at: (c) −15 °C and 0.1 kPa
From the phase diagram for water (Figure 10.31), determine the state of water at: (d) 75 °C and 3 kPa
From the phase diagram for water (Figure 10.31), determine the state of water at: (e) 40 °C and 0.1 kPa
From the phase diagram for water (Figure 10.31), determine the state of water at: (f) 60 °C and 50 kPa
What phase changes will take place when water is subjected to varying pressure at a constant temperature of 0.005 °C? At 40 °C? At −40 °C?
Pressure cookers allow food to cook faster because the higher pressure inside the pressure cooker increases the boiling temperature of water. A particular pressure cooker has a safety valve that is set to vent steam if the pressure exceeds 3.4 atm. What is the approximate maximum temperature that can be reached inside this pressure cooker Explain your reasoning.
You may want to reference(Page) Section 11.8 while completing this problem.Consider the phase diagram shown below.A sample of the substance in the phase diagram is initially at 181 oC and 931 mmHg. What phase transition occurs when the pressure is decreased to 761 mmHg at constant temperature?
From the phase diagram for carbon dioxide in Figure 10.34, determine the state of CO2 at: (a) 20 °C and 1000 kPa
From the phase diagram for carbon dioxide in Figure 10.34, determine the state of CO2 at: (b) 10 °C and 2000 kPa
From the phase diagram for carbon dioxide in Figure 10.34, determine the state of CO2 at: (c) 10 °C and 100 kPa
From the phase diagram for carbon dioxide in Figure 10.34, determine the state of CO2 at: (d) −40 °C and 500 kPa
From the phase diagram for carbon dioxide in Figure 10.34, determine the state of CO2 at: (e) −80 °C and 1500 kPa
Determine the phase changes that carbon dioxide undergoes as the pressure changes if the temperature is held at −50 °C? If the temperature is held at −40 °C? At 20 °C? (See the phase diagram in Figure 10.34.)
Dry ice, CO2(s), does not melt at atmospheric pressure. It sublimes at a temperature of −78 °C. What is the lowest pressure at which CO2(s) will melt to give CO2(l)? At approximately what temperature will this occur? (See Figure 10.34 for the phase diagram.)
If a severe storm results in the loss of electricity, it may be necessary to use a clothesline to dry laundry. In many parts of the country in the dead of winter, the clothes will quickly freeze when they are hung on the line. If it does not snow, will they dry anyway? Explain your answer.
Is it possible to liquefy nitrogen at room temperature (about 25 °C)? Is it possible to liquefy sulfur dioxide at room temperature? Explain your answers.
Elemental carbon has one gas phase, one liquid phase, and two different solid phases, as shown in the phase diagram:(a) On the phase diagram, label the gas and liquid regions.
Elemental carbon has one gas phase, one liquid phase, and two different solid phases, as shown in the phase diagram:(b) Graphite is the most stable phase of carbon at normal conditions. On the phase diagram, label the graphite phase.
Elemental carbon has one gas phase, one liquid phase, and two different solid phases, as shown in the phase diagram:(c) If graphite at normal conditions is heated to 2500 K while the pressure is increased to 1010 Pa, it is converted into diamond. Label the diamond phase.
Elemental carbon has one gas phase, one liquid phase, and two different solid phases, as shown in the phase diagram:(d) Circle each triple point on the phase diagram.
Elemental carbon has one gas phase, one liquid phase, and two different solid phases, as shown in the phase diagram:(e) In what phase does carbon exist at 5000 K and 108 Pa?
Elemental carbon has one gas phase, one liquid phase, and two different solid phases, as shown in the phase diagram:(f) If the temperature of a sample of carbon increases from 3000 K to 5000 K at a constant pressure of 106 Pa, which phase transition occurs, if any?
The boiling point of amphetamine, C 9H13N, is 201°C at 760 torr and 83°C at 13 torr. What is the concentration (in g/m3) of amphetamine when it is in contact with 20.°C air?
You may want to reference(Pages 518 - 520) section 11.8 while completing this problem.Consider the phase diagram for iodine shown below and answer each of the following questions.What is the normal boiling point for iodine?
You may want to reference(Pages 518 - 520) section 11.8 while completing this problem.Consider the phase diagram for iodine shown below and answer each of the following questions.What is the melting point for iodine at 1 atm?
You may want to reference(Pages 518 - 520) section 11.8 while completing this problem.Consider the phase diagram for iodine shown below and answer each of the following questions.What phase is present at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure?
You may want to reference(Pages 518 - 520) section 11.8 while completing this problem.Consider the phase diagram for iodine shown below and answer each of the following questions.What phase is present at 186 oC and 1.0 atm?
The density of solid gallium at its melting point is 5.9 g/cm3, whereas that of liquid gallium is 6.1 g/cm3. Is the temperature at the triple point higher or lower than the normal melting point? Is the slope of the solid-liquid line for gallium positive or negative?
The types of intermolecular forces in a substance are identical whether it is a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Why then does a substance change phase from a gas to a liquid or to a solid?
Use these data to draw a qualitative phase diagram for ethylene (C2H4). Is C2H4(s) more or less dense than C2H4(l)?bp at 1 atm:        −103.7°Cmp at 1 atm:       −169.16°CCritical point:        9.9°C and 50.5 atmTriple point:       −169.17°C and 1.20 x 10−3 atm
Consider the phase diagram for carbon dioxide.If you have carbon dioxide at 1.5 atm and 26˚C, could you make it a liquid by cooling it down?
Use these data to draw a qualitative phase diagram for H2. Does H2 sublime at 0.05 atm? Explain.mp at 1 atm:                                         13.96 Kbp at 1 atm:                                          20.39 KTriple point:                                          13.95 K and 0.07 atmCritical point:                                        33.2 K and 13.0 atmVapor pressure of solid at 10 K:          0.001 atm
Consider the phase diagram for carbon dioxide.How could you make it a liquid at 26˚C?
Consider the phase diagram for carbon dioxide.If you increase the pressure of carbon dioxide that is at body temperature (37˚C), will it ever liquefy?
The phase diagram for sulfur is shown below.(a) Give a set of conditions under which it is possible to sublime the rhombic form of solid sulfur.
The phase diagram for sulfur is shown below.(b) Describe the phase changes that a sample of sulfur undergoes at 1 atm when it is heated from 90°C to 450°C.
The phase diagram for xenon is shown below.(a) What phase is xenon in at room temperature and pressure?
Which of the following statements is NOT correct? a. As a liquid is heated at a constant pressure above the critical pressure, it eventually changes to the gas phase. b. It is possible to find a path such that a liquid can be converted to a gas without a phase change. c. Increasing the pressure of a fluid at a constant temperature above the critical temperature produces no phase change no matter how great the pressure becomes. d. Below the critical temperature both the liquid and gas phase can exist. Higher pressure favors the liquid phase.
Evaporation is: Select one:a. a cooling process for humans when they sweat. b. All of these c. increased by increasing temperature. d. an endothermic process. e. the opposite process as condensation.
Below is a phase diagram for a substance. What is the name for point Z on the diagram? (A) boiling point. (B) critical point. (C) triple point. (D) normal boiling point. (E) melting point.