Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Trends in Ionization Energy

Concept #1: Understanding Ionization Energy

Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous element. 

Concept #2: Exceptions to Ionization Energy in Groups 5A & 6A

Concept #3: Exceptions to Ionization Energy in Groups 2A & 3A 

Example #1: Of the following atoms, which has the smallest second ionization energy?

Al                     Li                     Rb              Mg                  Be                    

Practice: Of the following atoms, which has the smallest third ionization energy?

Practice: Which of the following statements is/are true? 

a. Sulfur has a larger IE1 than Phosphorus 

b. Boron has a lower IE1 than Magnesium 

c. Magnesium has a higher IE1 than Aluminum

Practice: Shown below are the numerical values for ionization energies (IE's). Match the numerical values with each of the following elements provided in the boxes.

Additional Problems
What is the best explanation for the fact that the ionization energy of boron is lower than that of beryllium? 1. the quantum mechanical stability of the filled s subshell of beryllium 2. the increased repulsion experienced by the electrons in beryllium 3. boron has a larger effective nuclear charge than beryllium. 4. the radius of boron is smaller than that of beryllium making it easy to remove an electron
Write an equation that represents the second ionization energy of copper. 1. Cu+(g) → Cu2+(g) + e −  2. Cu(g) → Cu2+(g) + e − 3. Cu+(g) → Cu2+(g) + 2 e − 4. Cu(g) → Cu+(g) + e − 5. Cu(g) → Cu2+(g) + 2 e − 
Which of the following options correctly lists the provided atoms in order of the ease with which they lose electrons?  B     K     Na     He     H a) K < Na < B < He < H b) H < He < B < Na < K c) He < H < B < Na < K d) K < Na < B < H < He e) B < H < He < K < Na
The first three ionization energies for Ba is given in the graph below.  Explain this trend in terms of the electronic configuration; in particular, discuss why the third ionization energy is almost 4 times higher than the second.
An atom is found to have the following ionization energies (in kJ/mol) IE1 = 577; IE2 = 1816; IE3 = 2,744; IE4 = 11,576; IE5 = 18, 375 Which of the following is the most likely choice for this atom? A. Na B. Mg C. Al D. Si E. P
Which of the following contains the atoms listed in order of INCREASING ionization energy? A. Na < K < Rb B. O < N < C C. C < F < O D. C < O < F E. Ar < As < K
Which of the following elements has the largest ionization energy? A) Na B) Ne C) F D) K E) Rb
Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of calcium? a. Ca (g) → Ca + (g) + e b. Ca + (g) → Ca 2+ (g) + e c. Ca - (g)  + e → Ca 2- (g) d. Ca + (g)  + e → Ca 2+ (g)  e. Ca + (g)  +  e → Ca (g)
Consider the following orderings. I. Al < Si < P II. Be< Mg< Ca III. I<Br< CI IV. Na+< Mg2+< Al3+ Which of the above gives a correct trend for increasing ionization energy for loss of one electron from the indicated atom or ion? A. II, IV B. I, III C. III, IV D. I, III, IV E. none of these are correct
What period 3 element has the following ionization energies (all in kJ/mol)? A) Si                             B) S                             C) P                             D) Cl                            E) Mg
Which do you expect to require more energy: removing the electron from a H atom, or removing the electron from a He+ ion?      Explain your reasoning using number or words. 
Of the choices below, which gives the order for first ionization energies? A) C l > S > Al > Ar > Si B) Ar > Cl > S > P > Al C) Al > Si > S > Cl > Ar D) Ar > Cl > S > Si > Al E) S > Si > Cl > Al > Ar
Rank these elements according to first ionization energy from highest to lowest. Mg  , Si  , S  , Cl  , Ar  , Na
Which of the following processes represents the ionization energy of iodine? a) I2 (s) → I2+ (g) + e b) I2 (g) → I2+ (g) + e c) I (s) → I + (g) + e d) I (g) → I + (g) + e e) I (l) → I + (l) + e
Which element will display a very large jump in ionization energy values between  I3, and I4, its third and fourth ionization energies? a) Na b) Mg c) Al d) Si e) P
Of the following atoms, which has the smallest second ionization energy? a) Be                            b) Al                             c) Li                             d) Ba                            e) In
Which of the following represents the  third ionization of Mn? Mn– (g) + e –  →  2 Mn2- (g) Mn2+ (g)  →  Mn3+ (g) + e – Mn2- + e –  →  Mn3- (g) Mn2+ (g)  →  Mn+ (g) + e –
Given the following successive ionization energies (1st, 2nd, 3rd ionization energies etc) what element do they correspond to? a. Li b. Be c. B d. C e. N
Helium has two electrons in the 1s orbital. When it becomes singly ionized, forming He+,  (A) its spectrum resembles that of the hydrogen spectrum.  (B) the remaining electron is easier to remove.  (C) the nuclear charge has decreased by one. (D) it has lost one atomic mass unit. 
Which pair of elements is listed in order of decreasing first ionization energy? a) Na, Mg b) Mg, Al c) Al, Si d) Si, P
Which of the atoms will have the smallest first ionization energy? (a) Helium (b) Strontium (c) Barium (d) Nitrogen (e) Fluorine
Arrange the elements in Mg, Ne, Na, and Ar in order of increasing energy required to remove the first electron from their atoms: a. Na < Mg < Ar < Ne b. Ne < Ar < Mg <Na c. Mg < Na < Ar <Ne d. Ar < Ne < Na < Mg
The first three ionization energies of an element X are 590, 1145 and 10,192 kJ/mol. What is the most likely formula for a stable ion of X? a. X + b. X 2+ c. X 3+ d. X -
For the successive ionization of an atom of Nitrogen, where would the first large increase in ionization energy be observed? A. Between E1 and E2 B. Between E2 and E3 C. Between E4 and E5 D. Between E5 and E6 E. Between E7 and E8
Which element will have the largest first ionization energy? A. Ca B. Mg C. Be D. Na E. K
The first three ionization energies of an element X are 590, 1145 and 10,912 kJ/mol. What is the most likely formula for a stable ion of X? a. X+ b. X2+ c. X3+ d. X4+
Which excited state molecule or ion will have the smallest ionization energy? a. H (2p1 ) b. He (1s13p1 ) c. Li (1s24p1) d. Be (1s22s15p1 ) e. B (1s22s26p1 )
Why does the ionization energy increase when electrons are consecutively removed from an atom? a. the outermost electron experiences a higher effective nuclear charge b. the remaining electrons are held more strongly c. atomic radius is decreasing d. all of the above e. none of the above
The process of removing an electron from a neutral element in the gas phase… a. requires energy for all elements, because the initial state is less stable than the final state. b. requires energy for all elements, because the initial state is more stable than the final state. c. does not require energy for any element, because the initial state is the same energy as the final state. d. requires energy for some elements, because sometimes the initial state is more stable than the final state.
Which of the following would be expected to have the lowest first ionization energy? 1. F 2. C 3. O 4. Ne 5. Li 
Which element would have the following ionization energies (listed in kJ/mol)? IE1     IE2      IE 3       IE 4       IE 5        IE 6 800   2430  3600  25,020  32,820   47,280 A. F B. O C. N D. C E. B
Circle that atom that is hardest to ionize: S       Te
Elements in group 7A in the periodic table are the halogens; elements in group 6A are called the chalcogens.For each of the following periodic properties, state whether the halogens or the chalcogens have larger values: atomic radii, ionic radii of the most common oxidation state, first ionization energy, second ionization energy.
Based on what you just learned about ionization energies, explain why valence electrons are more important than core electrons in determining the reactivity and bonding in atoms.
In April 2010, a research team reported that it had made Element 117. This discovery was confirmed in 2012 by additional experiments.Estimate a value for its first ionization energy based on its position in the periodic table.
You may want to reference (Pages 268 - 272)Section 7.4 while completing this problem.Consider the following statements about first ionization energies: Because the effective nuclear charge for Mg is greater than that for Be, the first ionization energy of Mg is greater than that of Be. The first ionization energy of O is less than that of N because in O we must pair electrons in the 2p orbitals. The first ionization energy of Ar is less than that of Ne because a 3p electron in Ar is farther from the nucleus than a 2p electron in Ne. Which of the statements I, II, and III is or are true?
Which element in the periodic table has the largest ionization energy?
Which element in the periodic table has the smallest ionization energy?
Figure Trends in first ionization energies of the elements.The value for astatine, At, is missing in this figure. To the nearest 100 kJ/mol,what estimate would you make for the first ionization energy of At?
What is ionization energy?
What is the difference between first ionization energy and second ionization energy?
Examination of the first few successive ionization energies for a given element usually reveals a large jump between two ionization energies. For example, the successive ionization energies of magnesium show a large jump between IE2 and IE3. The successive ionization energies of aluminum show a large jump between IE3 and IE4.Explain why these jumps occur and how you might predict them.
Explain the variation in ionization energies of carbon, as displayed in the graph.
What value of the effective nuclear charge gives the proper value for the ionization energy?
One way to measure ionization energies is photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), a technique based on the photoelectric effect. In PES, monochromatic light is directed onto a sample, causing electrons to be emitted. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured. The difference between the energy of the photons and the kinetic energy of the electrons corresponds to the energy needed to remove the electrons (that is, the ionization energy). Suppose that a PES experiment is performed in which mercury vapor is irradiated with ultraviolet light of wavelength 58.4 nm. Write an equation that shows the process corresponding to the first ionization energy of Hg.
One way to measure ionization energies is photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), a technique based on the photoelectric effect. In PES, monochromatic light is directed onto a sample, causing electrons to be emitted. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured. The difference between the energy of the photons and the kinetic energy of the electrons corresponds to the energy needed to remove the electrons (that is, the ionization energy). Suppose that a PES experiment is performed in which mercury vapor is irradiated with ultraviolet light of wavelength 58.4 nm. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured to be 10.75 eV. What is the first ionization energy of Hg, in kJ/mol?
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy: S, Ca, F, Rb, and Si.
Choose the element with the highest first ionization energy from each of the following pairs.Br or Bi
Choose the element with the highest first ionization energy from each of the following pairs.Na or Rb
Choose the element with the highest first ionization energy from each of the following pairs.P or As
Choose the element with the highest first ionization energy from each of the following pairs.P or Sn
Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy: Si, F, In, N.
Compare the elements bromine and chlorine with respect to the following properties.most common ionic charge
Compare the elements bromine and chlorine with respect to the following properties.first ionization energy
Consider the following elements: N, Mg, O, F, Al.Arrange the elements in order of decreasing ionization energy.
Consider the elements: B, C, N, O, F.Which element has the highest first ionization energy?
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365)section 8.7 while completing this problem.Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy: Po, Cl, Te, and S.
Hydrogen is an unusual element because it behaves in some ways like the alkali metal elements and in other ways like nonmetals. Its properties can be explained in part by its electron configuration and by the values for its ionization energy and electron affinity.Explain why the ionization energy of hydrogen is closer to the values for the halogens than for the alkali metals.
Consider the elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P.Which element has the highest second ionization energy?
You may want to reference (Pages 336 - 372) Chapter 8 while completing this problem. Consider the following elements: P, Ca, Si, S, Ga.Arrange the elements in order of decreasing ionization energy.
Write equations that show the processes that describe the first, second, and third ionization energies for a gaseous aluminum atom.
You may want to reference (Pages 268 - 272) Section 7.4 while completing this problem. Enter equations that show the following processes.The first two ionization energies of lead.
What is the general trend in first ionization energy as you move down a column in the periodic table?
Which element has the highest second ionization energy?
What is the general trend in first ionization energy as you move across a row in the periodic table?
What are the exceptions to the periodic trends in ionization energy?
Which is more reluctant to give up an electron, lithium or oxygen?
Which is more willing to give up an electron, lithium or oxygen?
The trend in second ionization energy for the elements from lithium to fluorine is not a smooth one. Predict which of these elements has the highest second ionization energy and which has the lowest and explain. Of the elements N, O, and F, O has the highest and N the lowest second ionization energy. Explain.
The outermost valence electron in atom A experiences an effective nuclear charge of 2+ and is on average 225 pm from the nucleus. The outermost valence electron in atom B experiences an effective nuclear charge of 1+ and is on average 175 pm from the nucleus.Which atom (A or B) has the highest first ionization energy?
Table: Some Properties of the Halogens Element Electron Configuration Melting Point (oC) Density Atomic Radius (Å) I1 (kJ/mol) Fluorine [He]2s22p5 -220 1.69 g/L 0.57 1681 Chlorine [Ne]3s23p5 -102 3.12 g/L 1.02 1251 Bromine [Ar]4s23d104p5 -7.3 3.12 g/cm3 1.20 1140 Iodine [Kr]5s24d105p5 114 4.94 g/cm3 1.39 1008 Use the data from the table above to provide estimates for the first ionization energy of an astatine atom?
Would you expect it to require more or less energy to remove a 3s electron from the chlorine atom, as compared with a 2p electron?
Unlike the elements in groups 1A and 2A, those in group 3A do not show a smooth decrease in first ionization energy in going down the column. Explain the irregularities.
Consider the first ionization energy of neon and the electron affinity of fluorine.Write equation for the first ionization energy of neon.
Until the early 1960s the group 8A elements were called the inert gases.What name is applied to the group now?
If you remove a single electron from a P atom, which orbital will it come from?
Which reaction below represents the second ionization of Sr?a. Sr(g) → Sr+(g) + e -b. Sr2+(g) + e - → Sr+(g)c. Sr+(g) + e - → Sr(g)d. Sr -(g) + e - → Sr2-(g)e. Sr+(g) → Sr2+(g) + e -
Write a chemical equation representing the second ionization energy for lithium.
Which ionization process requires the most energy? Explain?a. W(g) → W+(g) + e-b. W+(g) → W2+(g) + e-c. W2+(g) → W3+(g) + e-d. W3+(g) → W4+(g) + e-
Identify an atom that has the following first five successive ionization energies: E1 = 801 kJ/mol        E2 = 2,427 kJ/mol E3 = 3,660 kJ/mol E4 = 25,026 kJ/mol E5 = 32,827 kJ/mol A. Be                 B. B               C. C                   D. N               E. O
Choose the element with the higher ionization energy for the following pair. As or Bi 
Choose the element with the higher ionization energy for the following pair. As or Br
Which reaction below represents the first ionization of O?a. O(g) + e- → O-(g)b. O+(g) + e- → O(g)c. O(g) → O+(g) + e-d. O-(g) + e- → O2-(g)e. O-(g) → O(g) + e-
Identify the element of Period 2 which has the following successive ionization energies, in kJ/mol. 
Which alkali metal has the highest ionization energy?
Write a chemical equation representing the second ionization energy for lithium. Use e- as the symbol for an electron.
Arrange the elements in decreasing order of first ionization energy. Rank from highest to lowest first ionization energy. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. In, Ge, Se, Cs
Place the following in order of increasing IE1.K, Ca, Rb a. Rb < K < Ca b. Ca < Rb < K c. K < Ca < Rb d. Ca < K < Rb e. Rb < Ca < K
Comparing the ionization energies of chlorine, selenium and sulfur. a. S > Se and S = Cl. b. S > Se and S > Cl. c. S < Se and S < Cl. d. S > Se and S < Cl. e. S < Se and S = Cl.
Which of the following elements has the  smallest first ionization energy? a) P b) K c) C d) Mg e) Ar
Of the choices below, which gives the order for first ionization energies?a. Al > Si > S > Cl > Arb. S > Si > Cl > Al > Arc. Cl > S > Al > Ar > Sid. Cl > S > Al > Si > Are. Ar > Cl > S > Si > Al
Consider the following set of successive ionization energies:IE1 = 578 kJ/mol; IE2 = 1,820 kJ/mol; IE3 = 2,750 kJ/mol; IE4 =11,600 kJ/mol.To which third period element do these ionization values belong?a. Phosphorousb. Chlorinec. Scandiumd. Aluminume. None of the above
Which of the following is TRUE about first ionization energies? a. Na < Mg < Al b. Si < P < S c. Na > Si > Cl d. P > S < Cl e. None of the above
When the species F -, Na+, and Ne are arranged in order of increasing energy for the removal of an electron, what is the correct order?a) F - < Na+ < Neb) F - < Ne < Na +c) Na+ <Ne < F -d) Ne < F - < Na+
The first ionization potential of the elements B, C, and N (atomic numbers 5, 6, and 7) steadily increases, but that of O is less than that of N. The best interpretation of the lower value for O is that A. there is more shielding of the nuclear charge in O than in B, C, or N. B. the ionization potential of N is a maximum and the values decrease steadily for the elements O, F, and Ne. C. the half-filled set of p orbitals in N makes it more difficult to remove an electron from N than from O.  D. the electron removed from O is farther from the nucleus and therefore less tightly bound than that in N. E. the electron removed from O corresponds to a different value of the quantum number ℓ than that of the electron removed from B, C, or N.
Which ionization process requires the most energy?a. S(g) → S+(g) + e-b. S+(g) → S2+(g) + e-c. Cl(g) → Cl+(g) + e-d. Cl+(g) → Cl2+(g) + e-
Arrange the elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy. Rank from highest to lowest first ionization energy. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.
Which graph shows the correct trend for ionization energies, IE, of aluminum, Al?
Rank these elements according to first ionization energy. 
Rank these elements according to first ionization energy (highest to lowest) :Ne, F, O, N, C, B, Be, Li
Write chemical equations for first ionization step of carbonic acid Write chemical equations for second ionization step of carbonic acid.
Consider the following set of successive ionization energies: IE1 = 1012kJ/mol IE2 = 1,920kJ/mol IE3 = 2,910kJ/mol IE4 = 5,000kJ/mol IE5 = 6,300kJ/mol IE6 = 21,220kJ/mol IE7 = 29,780kJ/mol To which third period element (enter the symbol or name) do these ionization values belong?
Rank these elements according to first ionization energy from highest to lowest. Mg - Si - S - Cl - Ar -Na
Which element has the highest ionization energy?a. Sr or Bab. Br or I or Te
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Consider the following set of successive ionization energies:IE1 = 578/molIE2 = 1,820/molIE3 = 2,750/molIE4 = 11,600/molTo which third-period element do these ionization values belong?
For each of the following pairs of elements:(Mg and K)     (F and Cl)pick the atom with the higher ionization energy.
Name the element described in the following: Highest IE 1 in Group 4A(14).
Name the element described in the following: Lowest IE 1 in Period 5.
Write an equation corresponding to the fourth ionization energy of Se.
Write an equation corresponding to the ionization energy of Mg.
Using data from the text, determine the ionization energy of Cl -. Justify your answer.
A fundamental relationship of electrostatics states that the energy required to separate opposite charges of magnitudes Q1 and Q2 that are a distance d apart is proportional to (Q 1 x Q 2)/d . Use this relationship and any other relevant factors to explain the following: The IE 2 of He (Z = 2) is more than twice the IE1 of H (Z = 1).
A fundamental relationship of electrostatics states that the energy required to separate opposite charges of magnitudes Q1 and Q2 that are a distance d apart is proportional to (Q 1 x Q 2)/d . Use this relationship and any other relevant factors to explain the following: The IE 1 of He is less than twice the IE1 of H.
Write the formula and name of the compound formed from the following ionic interaction: The ions form from the largest and smallest ionizable atoms in Period 2.
Arrange the atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: Te, S, Se.
Arrange the atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: K, Br, Ni.
Arrange the atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: Ba, Si, F.
Arrange the atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: Rb, Na, Be.
Arrange the atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: Sr, Se, Ne.
Arrange the atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: Fe, P, O.
There are some exceptions to the trends of first and successive ionization energies. For the following pair, explain which ionization energy would be higher: IE1 of Ga or IE1 of Ge.
There are some exceptions to the trends of first and successive ionization energies. For the following pair, explain which ionization energy would be higher: IE2 of Ga or IE 2 of Ge.
There are some exceptions to the trends of first and successive ionization energies. For the following pair, explain which ionization energy would be higher: IE3 of Ga or IE 3 of Ge.
There are some exceptions to the trends of first and successive ionization energies. For the following pair, explain which ionization energy would be higher: IE4 of Ga or IE 4 of Ge.
(a) Use the figure below to find the longest wavelength of electromagnetic (EM) radiation that can ionize an alkali metal atom.
You may want to reference(Pages 363 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.The ionization energies of an unknown third period element are shown below:IE1 = 786 kJ/molIE2 = 1580 kJ/molIE3 = 3230 kJ/molIE4 = 4360 kJ/molIE5 = 16,100 kJ/molWrite the symbol of the element.
(b) Use the figure below to find the longest wavelength of EM radiation that can ionize an alkaline earth metal atom.
Which atom has the smallest ionization energy: Ca, Sr, or Ba?
Which atom has the smallest ionization energy: K, Mn, or Ga?
Which atom has the smallest ionization energy: N, O, or F?
Which ion has the smallest ionization energy: S2-, S, or S2+?
Which atom has the smallest ionization energy: Cs, Ge, or Ar?
The successive ionization energies for an unknown element are:I1 = 896 kJ/molI2 = 1752 kJ/molI3 = 14,807 kJ/molI4 = 17,948 kJ/molTo which family in the periodic table does the unknown element most likely belong?
Based on their positions in the periodic table, predict which has the largest first ionization energy: Mg, Ba, B, O, Te.
Based on their positions in the periodic table, predict which has the smallest first ionization energy: Li, Cs, N, F, I.
The first ionization energies of As and Se are 0.947 and 0.941 MJ/mol, respectively. Rationalize these values in terms of electron configurations.
Based on their positions in the periodic table, rank the following atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: F, Li, N, Rb.
Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase. The ionization energy of gold is 890.1 kJ/mol. Is light with a wavelength of 225 nm capable of ionizing a gold atom (removing an electron) in the gas phase? (1 mol gold = 6.022 x 1023 atoms gold.)
Rank the elements Be, B, C, N, and O in order of increasing first ionization energy. Explain your reasoning.
Based on their positions in the periodic table, rank the following atoms in order of increasing first ionization energy: Mg, O, S, Si.
Arrange each set of atoms in order of increasing IE1: (a) Sr, Ca, Ba 
Arrange each set of atoms in order of increasing IE1: (b) N, B, Ne 
Arrange each set of atoms in order of increasing IE1: (c) Br, Rb, Se 
Consider the following ionization energies for aluminum:Al(g) → Al+(g) + e-          I1 = 580 kJ/molAl+(g) → Al2+(g) + e-          I2 = 1815 kJ/molAl2+(g) → Al3+(g) + e-          I3 = 2740 kJ/molAl3+(g) → Al4+(g) + e-          I4 = 11,600 kJ/molAccount for the trend in the values of the ionization energies.
Arrange each set of atoms in order of increasing IE1: (d) As, Sb, Sn
An unknown element is a nonmetal and has a valence electron configuration of ns2 np4. Would this element have a greater or smaller ionization energy than fluorine?
Arrange each set of atoms in order of decreasing IE1: (a) Na, Li, K 
Arrange each set of atoms in order of decreasing IE1: (b) Be, F, C 
Arrange each set of atoms in order of decreasing IE1: (c) Cl, Ar, Na 
Arrange each set of atoms in order of decreasing IE1: (d) Cl, Br, Se
Write the full electron configuration of the Period 3 element with the following successive IEs (in kJ/mol): IE1 = 738 IE2 = 1450 IE3 = 7732 IE4 = 10,539 IE5 = 13,628
Consider the following ionization energies for aluminum:Al(g) → Al+(g) + e-          I1 = 580 kJ/molAl+(g) → Al2+(g) + e-          I2 = 1815 kJ/molAl2+(g) → Al3+(g) + e-          I3 = 2740 kJ/molAl3+(g) → Al4+(g) + e-          I4 = 11,600 kJ/molExplain the large increase between I3 and I4.
Which element in each of the following sets would you expect to have the highest IE2? (a) Na, Mg, Al 
Which element in each of the following sets would you expect to have the highest IE2? (b) Na, K, Fe 
Which element in each of the following sets would you expect to have the highest IE2? (c) Sc, Be, Mg
Which element in each of the following sets would you expect to have the lowest IE3? (a) Na, Mg, Al 
Which element in each of the following sets would you expect to have the lowest IE3? (b) K, Ca, Sc 
Which element in each of the following sets would you expect to have the lowest IE3?(c) Li, Al, B
The following graph plots the first, second, and third ionization energies for Mg, Al, and Si.Without referencing the text, which plot corresponds to which element? In one of the plots, there is a huge jump in energy between I2 and I3, unlike in the other two plots. Explain this phenomenon.
Of the five elements Al, Cl, I, Na, Rb, which has the most exothermic reaction? (E represents an atom.) What name is given to the energy for the reaction? Hint: note the process depicted does not correspond to electron affinity E+(g) + e− ⟶ E(g)
An electron is excited from the n = 1 ground state to the n = 3 state in a hydrogen atom. Which of the following statements is/are true? Correct the false statements to make them true.a. It takes more energy to ionize (completely remove) the electron from  n = 3 than from the ground state.b. The electron is farther from the nucleus on average in the  n = 3 state than in the  n = 1 state.c. The wavelength of light emitted if the electron drops from  n = 3 to n = 2 will be shorter than the wavelength of light emitted if the electron falls from  n = 3 to n = 1.d. The wavelength of light emitted when the electron returns to the ground state from  n = 3 will be the same as the wavelength of light absorbed to go from n = 1 to n = 3.e. For n = 3, the electron is in the first excited state.
Calculate the maximum wavelength of light capable of removing an electron for a hydrogen atom from the energy state characterized by n = 1, by n = 2.
Of the five elements Sn, Si, Sb, O, Te, which has the most endothermic reaction? (E represents an atom.) What name is given to the energy for the reaction? E(g) ⟶ E+(g) + e−
Use principles of atomic structure to answer each of the following:(c) Given these ionization values, explain the difference between Ca and K with regard to their first and second ionization energies.
Use principles of atomic structure to answer each of the following:(d) The first ionization energy of Mg is 738 kJ/mol and that of Al is 578 kJ/mol. Account for this difference.
For each of the following pairs of elements:(C and N)     (Ar and Br)pick the atom with the higher ionization energy.
Which main group atom would be expected to have the lowest second ionization energy?
The ionization energy of chlorine is lower than the ionization energy of _____.a. sodiumb. fluorinec. hydrogend. lithiume. calcium 
Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy Po, Cl, Te, and S. Rank elements from largest to smallest. 
Write a chemical equation representing the second ionization energy for lithium. Use e- as the symbol for an electron. 
Using only the periodic table arrange the following elements in order of increasing ionization energy: iodine, antimony, strontium, xenon