Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Additional Problems
Identify the chemical species that has the smallest radius. a.  N5- b.  N2- c.  N0 d.  N1+ e.  N3+
An element with a high likelihood of becoming an anion, would be expected to have a relatively a) large negative electron affinity and a relatively high ionization energy. b) large negative electron affinity and a relatively low ionization energy. c) Small negative electron affinity and a relatively high ionization energy. d) Small negative electron affinity and a relatively low ionization energy. e) more information is needed.
The species F -, and Na+ all have the same number of electrons. Which is the predicted order when they are arranged in order of decreasing size (largest first)? a) F - > Ne > Na + b) Ne > Na + > F - c) Na+ > F - > Ne d) F - > Na + > Ne
In the generation of most anions,the energy change (kJ/mol) that ____ an electron is ______. This is called __________. a. removes, negative, metallic character b. adds, positive, electronegativity c. removes, positive, ionization energy d. adds, negative, electron affinity e. None of the above is correct.
Let X be a hypothetical element. Which of the following would be largest? 1. X 2+ 2. X 3. X + 4. X 2-
Which of these statements is false?   A. Atomic radius increases on going down a group. B. Second ionization energies are always larger than first ionization energies. C. A cation is always smaller than its parent neutral atom. D. Valence electrons are more difficult to remove than core electrons. E. Xenon and iodide are isoelectronic.
What are periodic properties?
What is the general relationship between the size of an atom and its first ionization energy?
Why is calcium generally more reactive than magnesium?
Why is calcium generally less reactive than potassium?
Pick the larger species from each of the following pairs.Li or Li+
Pick the larger species from each of the following pairs.Cr or Cr3 +
Pick the larger species from each of the following pairs.O or O2 -
Silver and rubidium both form +1 ions, but silver is far less reactive. Suggest an explanation, taking into account the ground-state electron configurations of these elements and atomic radii.
Suppose you were trying to find a substitute for K+ in nerve signal transmission. Where would you begin your search? What ions would be most like K+? For each ion you propose, explain the ways in which it would be similar to K+ and the ways it would be different. Use periodic trends in your discussion.
Suppose you were trying to find a substitute for Na+ in nerve signal transmission. Where would you begin your search? What ions would be most like Na+? For each ion you propose, explain the ways in which it would be similar to Na+ and the ways it would be different. Use periodic trends in your discussion.
Life on Earth evolved around the element carbon.Based on periodic properties, what two or three elements would you expect to be most like carbon?
The periodic table on the left represents what types of trends?
Figure: Metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. How do the periodic trends in metallic character compare to those for ionization energy?
Provide a brief explanation for each of the following.O2 - is larger than O .
You read the following statement about two elements X and Y: One of the elements is a good conductor of electricity, and the other is a semiconductor. Experiments show that the first ionization energy of X is twice as great as that of Y .Which element has the greater metallic character?
True or False:Cations are larger than their corresponding neutral atoms.
True or False:Li+ is smaller than Li.
Cesium tends to be the most reactive of the stable alkali metals (francium, Fr, is radioactive and has not been extensively studied).What atomic property of Cs is most responsible for its high reactivity?
For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. There is one and only one correct answer per question. a) Which of the following is the largest atom?        Li              Na              O                S    b) Which of the following has the largest first ionization energy?       Li              Na              O                S    c) Which of the following is the most metallic element?       Li              Na              O                S    d) Which of the following is the largest ion?        Li +            Na +             O 2-            S 2-   e) Which of the following is the most electronegative element?       Ba              Ca               Po             Se 
How are the elements arranged in the modern periodic table?a. elements are arranged in a table by atomic number (increased from left to right)b. elements with similar properties fall in the same columnsc. elements are arranged in the table by the size of the atom (increased from right to left)d. elements are arranged in a table by the electronegativity (increased from right to left)e. elements with similar properties fall in the same rows
Which of the following correctly selects the species of larger ionic radius in each atom-ionic species pair? H+ and H    Fe and Fe3+   S and S2-a) H+, Fe3+, Sb) H, Fe, S2-c) H, Fe, Sd) H+, Fe3+, S2-e) H+, Fe, S
Using the data in the figures below, calculate ΔE for the reaction Na(g)+ Cl(g) → Na+(g)+ Cl-(g) in kJ/mol.  
Which statement about the first ionization energy of Cl - is true?a. I.E.1 of Cl - is equal to -E.A. 1 of Clb. I.E.1 of Cl - is equal to E.A. 1 of Clc. I.E.1 of CI - is equal to -E.A. 1 of Cl -d. I.E.1 of Cl - is equal to E.A. 1 of Cl -e. None of the above statements are true
a. Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy starting with the highest.SCaFRbSib. Arrange the ions in order of increasing ionic radius starting with the smallest.O2-N3-Mg2+ F-Na+c. Arrange the following atoms in order of decreasing atomic size starting with the largest.CaRbSSiGeF
Which of the following ions or atoms will be smallest and why?S2− , Cl − , Ar, K + , Ca2+A. S2− because it has the most electronsB. S2− because it has the most protonsC. Ca2+ because it has the most electronsD. Ca2+ because it has the most protonsE. S2−  because it has the least protons
Noble gases have:A. High Ionization Energy, Low e– affinityB. Low Ionization Energy, Low e– affinityC. High Ionization Energy, Highe– affinityD. Low Ionization Energy, High e– affinity
Let X be a hypothetical element. Which of the following would be largest?1. X2+2. X3. X+4. X2–5. X–
The following reaction can be written as the sum of two reactions, one of which relates to ionization energy and one of which relates to electron affinity: Rb(g) + I(g) → Rb+ (g) + I- (g)Part A. What is the reaction that corresponds to the first ionization energy of rubidium, Rb? Express your answer as a chemical equation. Part B. What is the reaction that corresponds to the electron affinity of iodine, I? Express your answer as a chemical equation.
The radii of the species N, N + and N ‾ decrease in the following ordera) N+ > N > N‾b) N+ >  N‾ > Nc) N > N‾ > N+d) N‾ > N > N+e) N > N+ > N‾
In the generation of most anions, the energy change (kJ/mol) that ____ an electron is ____. This energy is called ___.a. Removes, negative, metallic characterb. Adds, positive, electronegativityc. Removes, positive , ionization energyd. Adds, negative, electron affinitye. None of the above is correct
The atomic radius of main-group elements generally increases down a column because __________.A. effective nuclear charge decreases down a columnB. the mass of an atom increases down a columnC. the highest principal quantum number of the valence orbitals increasesD. effective nuclear charge increases down a columnE. both effective nuclear charge increases down a column and the principal quantum number of the valence orbitals increases
Which property of the third period nonmetallic elements might be the one depicted in the graph?
Which of the following has the largest radius?1. K +2. Cl -3. S4. Cl5. S 2-
Which is the larger species in each pair? a. Li o r Li+b. Cs1- o r Cs+ c. Cr1-  or Cr3+d. O or O2-
Which is the larger species in each pair?a. Sr or Sr2+ b. N or N3-c. Ni or Ni2+d. S2- or Ca2+
Calculate the energy change for the reactionK(g) + Br(g) → K+(g) + Br– (g)given the following ionization energy (IE) and electron affinity (EA) valuesIE                                     EAK:   419 kJ/mol               48 kJ/molBr: 1140 kJ/mol              324 kJ/molA)     –1,092 kJ/mol                     D)      1,092 kJ/moB)     –95 kJ/mol                          E)      95 kJ/molC)      1,187 kJ/mol 
Rank these atoms and ions according to radius. K-, K+, K
For the following group, place the atoms and/or ions in order of decreasing size.a. Cu, Cu+, Cu2+
For the following group, place the atoms and/or ions in order of decreasing size.c. O, O—, O2—
For each of the following pairs of elements, choose the one that correctly completes the following table.
For the following group, place the atoms and/or ions in order of decreasing size.a. V, V2+, V3+, V5+
Which of the following statements is(are) true?a. F has a larger first ionization energy than does Li.b. Cations are larger than their parent atoms.c. The removal of the first electron from a lithium atom (electron configuration is 1s2 2s1) is exothermic—that is, removing this electron gives off energy.d. The He atom is larger than the H+ ion.e. The Al atom is smaller than the Li atom.
For the following group, place the atoms and/or ions in order of decreasing size.d. P, P—, P2—, P3—
You may want to reference (Pages 268 - 272) Section 7.4 while completing this problem.What is the trend in first ionization energies as one proceeds down the group 7A elements? Explain how this trend relates to the variation in atomic radii.
You may want to reference (Pages 268 - 272) Section 7.4 while completing this problem.What is the trend in first ionization energies as one moves across the fourth period from K to Kr? How does this trend compare with the trend in atomic radii?
Three elements have the electron configurations 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2, 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4, and 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2. The first ionization energies of these elements (not in the same order) are 0.590, 0.999, and 0.738 MJ/mol. The atomic radii are 104, 160, and 197 pm. Identify the three elements, and match the appropriate values of ionization energy and atomic radius to each configuration. Complete the following table with the correct information.
You may want to reference (Pages 274 - 278) Section 7.6 while completing this problem.(A) Does metallic character increase, decrease, or remain unchanged as one goes from left to right across a row of the periodic table? (B) Does metallic character increase, decrease, or remain unchanged as one goes down a column of the periodic table?Are the periodic trends observed in Parts A and B the same as or different from those for first ionization energy?
You may want to reference (Pages 268 - 272) Section 7.4 while completing this problem.Use electron configurations to explain the following observations:(a) The first ionization energy of phosphorus is greater than that of sulfur.(b) The electron affinity of nitrogen is lower (less negative) than those of both carbon and oxygen.(c) The second ionization energy of oxygen is greater than the first ionization energy of fluorine.(d) The third ionization energy of manganese is greater than those of both chromium and iron.
Which elements do you expect to lose electrons in their chemical reactions? Which do you expect to gain electrons?a. Alb. Snc. Brd. Se
Compare the elements bromine and chlorine with respect to the following properties: (a) electron configuration, (b) most common ionic charge, (c) first ionization energy, (d) reactivity toward water, (e) electron affinity, (f) atomic radius. Account for the differences between the two elements.
Does the information on alkali metals in the table below confirm the general periodic trends in ionization energy and atomic radius? Explain.
Hydrogen is an unusual element because it behaves in some ways like the alkali metal elements and in other ways like nonmetals. Its properties can be explained in part by its electron configuration and by the values for its ionization energy and electron affinity.The hydride ion is H–. Write out the process corresponding to the first ionization energy of the hydride ion. How does the process for the ionization energy of H– compare to the process for the electron affinity of a neutral hydrogen atom?
Complete and balance the equation for the following reaction:Li(s) + N2(g) →
Complete and balance the equation for the following reaction:Rb(s) + S(s) →
Complete and balance the equation for the following reaction:Cs(s) + H2O(l) →
Complete and balance the equation for the following reaction:Na(s) + Cl2(g) →
Describe the relationship between the radius of a cation and that of the atom from which it forms.
Describe the relationship between the radius of an anion and that of the atom from which it forms.
Arrange the atoms and/or ions in the following groups in order of decreasing size.a. O, O -, O 2-
You may want to reference (Pages 263 - 267) Section 7.3 while completing this problem.Explain the following variations in atomic or ionic radii.(a) I– > I > I+(b) Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Be2+(c) Fe > Fe2+ > Fe3+
Arrange these atoms and ions in order of decreasing radius: Cs+, Ba2+, I–
Which ion has the smallest radius: Na-, Na, or Na+?
You may want to reference (Pages 284 - 288) Section 7.8 while completing this problem.Potassium and hydrogen react to form the ionic compound potassium hydride. Use data in Figures 7.10 and 7.12 to determine the energy change in kJ/mol for the following two reactions:K(g) + H(g) → K+(g) + H–(g)K(g) + H(g) → K–(g) + H+(g)Based on your calculated energy changes, which of these reactions is energetically more favorable?
You may want to reference (Pages 284 - 288) Section 7.8 while completing this problem.Potassium and hydrogen react to form the ionic compound potassium hydride. Use data in Figures 7.10 and 7.12 to determine the energy change in kJ/mol for the following two reactions:K(g) + H(g) → K+(g) + H–(g)K(g) + H(g) → K–(g) + H+(g)Based on your calculated energy changes, which of these reactions is energetically more favorable? Is your answer consistent with the description of potassium hydride as containing hydride ions?
You may want to reference (Pages 284 - 288) Section 7.8 while completing this problem.Potassium and hydrogen react to form the ionic compound potassium hydride. Use data in Figures 7.10 and 7.12 to determine the energy change in kJ/mol for the following two reactions:K(g) + H(g) → K+(g) + H–(g)K(g) + H(g) → K–(g) + H+(g)
The four most abundant elements by mass in the human body are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. These four elements make up about 96% of the human body. The next four most abundant elements are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium. Excluding hydrogen, which of these elements would have the smallest size? largest size? smallest first ionization energy? largest first ionization energy?
Element 106 has been named seaborgium, Sg, in honor of Glenn Seaborg, discoverer of the first transuranium element. Write the expected electron configuration for element 106.
You may want to reference (Pages 274 - 278) Section 7.6 while completing this problem.Which of the following charts below shows the general periodic trends for each of the following properties of the main-group elements (you can neglect small deviations going either across a row or down a column of the periodic table)?(1) Bonding atomic radius(2) First ionization energy(3) Effective nuclear charge
Predict some of the properties of element 117 (the symbol is Uus, following conventions proposed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, or IUPAC). What element will it most resemble chemically?
In the ionic compounds LiF, NaCl, KBr, and RbI, the measured cation-anion distances are 2.01 Å (Li–F), 2.82 Å (Na–Cl), 3.30 Å (K–Br), and 3.67 Å (Rb–I), respectively.What estimates of the cation–anion distance would you obtain for these four compounds using neutral atom bonding atomic radii? Are these estimates as accurate as the estimates using ionic radii?
An unknown element is a nonmetal and has a valence electron configuration of ns2 np4. What are some possible identities for this element?
Data from the planet Zog for some main-group elements are shown below (Zoggian units are linearly related to Earth units but are not shown). Radio signals from Zog reveal that balloonium is a monatomic gas with two positive nuclear charges. Use the data to deduce the names that Earthlings give to these elements:
You may want to reference (Pages 263 - 267) Section 7.3 while completing this problem.For the following set of atoms and ions, arrange the members in order of decreasing size: Se2–, Te2–, Se.
You may want to reference (Pages 263 - 267) Section 7.3 while completing this problem.For the following set of atoms and ions, arrange the members in order of decreasing size: Co3+, Fe2+, Fe3+
You may want to reference (Pages 263 - 267) Section 7.3 while completing this problem.For the following set of atoms and ions, arrange the members in order of decreasing size: Ca, Ti4+, Sc3+
You may want to reference (Pages 263 - 267) Section 7.3 while completing this problem.For the following set of atoms and ions, arrange the members in order of decreasing size: Be2+, Na+, Ne
Arrange the following in order of increasing radius and increasing ionization energy.a. N+, N, N-
Arrange the following in order of increasing radius and increasing ionization energy.b. Se, Se-, Cl, Cl+
Use principles of atomic structure to answer each of the following:(a) The radius of the Ca atom is 197 pm; the radius of the Ca2+ ion is 99 pm. Account for the difference.
Of the following species, __________ has the largest radius.
PART A:What is the reaction that corresponds to the first ionization energy of rubidium, Rb?PART B:What is the reaction that corresponds to the electron affinity of iodine, I?
The atomic radium of element 115 is predicted to be that of bimuth (83) larger than, smaller than, equal to The electron affinity of element 115 is predicted to be that of bimuth (83)larger than, smaller than, equal to
Arrange the following in order of increasing radius:O2-, F- , Ne, Rb+, Br-