Ch.2 - Atoms & ElementsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Jules Bruno

Ionic compounds are composed of positive ion called a cation bonded to a negative ion called an anion. The charges of the periodic table are important when determining the molecular formula for ionic compounds

Major Classification Types of the Period Table

Recall that the elements of the periodic table are labeled as metals, non-metals, and metalloids. The Periodic Table provides you with the element symbol, element number, the atomic mass and the atomic number.

Periodic-Table-Major-Group-ClassificationsThe Periodic Table (Major Group Classifications)

Generally, metals lose electrons to become cations, while non-metals gain electrons to become anions. We disregard talking about the ionic charges of metalloids because they share characteristics of both metals and non-metals. 

Main Group Charges 

Elements gain and lose electrons in order to be more like the noble gases and have the same number of electrons as them.   

Main-Group-ChargesMain Group Charges

Most main group elements possess one charge. Notably exceptions are lead (Pb) and tin (Sn), which have charges of +2 and +4. 

Transition Metal Charges 

The Transition Metals and Inner Transition Metals, of which are further divided into Lanthanides and Actinides are sometimes referred to as the Group B Elements.  

Periodic-Table-Transition-Metals-ChartTransition Metals of the Periodic Table

Transition metals tend to have varying positive charges. The most common charges for the first row of transition metals are provided as: 

Transition-Metal-Charges-Cheat-SheetTransition Metal Ion Charges

The checkmarks in red represent the most common charge for the given transition metal. 

The multiple charges of transition metals can be further explained when examining concepts such as electronegativityvalence electrons, valence charge, oxidation number and electron configurations.  

Transition-Metal-Charges-ListPeriodic Table (Transition Metal Charges)

Once you’ve learned the general trends in element charges you’ll be able to deal with nomenclature where you learn how to name ionic compoundspolyatomic ions and eventually covalent compounds. 


Jules Bruno

Jules felt a void in his life after his English degree from Duke, so he started tutoring in 2007 and got a B.S. in Chemistry from FIU. He’s exceptionally skilled at making concepts dead simple and helping students in covalent bonds of knowledge.