Ch.3 - Chemical ReactionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Additional Problems
For the following balanced reaction, 4C6H5Cl + SiCl4 + 8Na → (C6H5)4Si + 8NaCl If the reaction produces (C6H5)4Si in a 96.3 % yield, then how many grams of C 6H5Cl will be necessary to make 152.0 g of (C6H5)4Si?    
Antimony reacts with sulfur according to this equation. 2Sb(s) + 3S(s) → Sb2S3(s) What is the percentage yield for a reaction in which 1.40 g of Sb 2S3 is obtained from 1.73 g of antimony and a slight excess of sulfur? a) 80.9% b) 58.0% c) 40.5% d) 29.0%
When 4.50 g of Fe2O3 is reduced with excess H2 in a furnace, 2.60 g of metallic iron is recovered. What is the percent yield? This is the equation representing the reaction. Fe2O3 has a molar mass of 159.7 g x mol-1 Fe2O3 (s) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 Fe (s) + 3 H2O (g) a) 82.6% b) 70.0% c) 57.8% d) 31.5%
Hydrogen fluoride is used in the manufacture of Freon (which also destroys ozone in the stratosphere) and in the production of aluminum metal. It is prepared by the reaction CaF2 + H2SO4      →      CaSO 4 + 2HF  In one process, 6.00 kg of CaF 2 are treated with an excess of H 2SO4 and yield 2.86 kg of HF. Calculate the percent yield of HF. a) 76.3% b) 83.6% c) 89.2% d) 93.0% e) 97.8%
What is the percent yield for a reaction in which 28 g of Cu is produced by reacting 32.5 g of Zn in excess CuSO4 solution? Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq)   a. 88% b. 75% c. 60% d. 50%
Determine the percent yield of a reaction that produces 28.65 g of Fe when 50.00 g of Fe2O3 react with excess Al according to the following reaction. (Molar masses: Fe = 55.85 g/mol, O = 16.00 g/mol, Fe2O3 = 159.70 g/mol) Fe2O3(s) + 2 Al(s) → Al2O3(s) + 2 Fe(s)   A) 61.03 % B) 28.65 % C) 57.30 % D) 20.02 % E) 81.93 %
Under certain conditions the reaction of 64.00 grams of oxygen with excess nitrogen monoxide produced 92.0 grams of nitrogen dioxide.  What is the % yield of nitrogen dioxide in this reaction?   a. 25 % b. 50 % c. 100 % d. 12.5 % e. 64.00 grams of oxygens cannot produce more than 46.00 grams of nitrogen dioxide.  
One rather exotic compound synthesized by the Susan Latturner group is Ba 2In5P5. (See Chemistry of Materials, 2008, 20, 5675-5681.) One could imagine attempting to prepare Ba2In5P5 by the following reaction: 2BaBr2 + 6 InP → Ba2In5P5 + InBr + PBr3 (Note: All of these compounds are real, but the reaction is hypothetical.) The following molar masses might come in handy: BaBr2 297.14; InP 145.79; Ba2In5P5 1003.61; all units are g/mol.   a) Suppose the reaction is carried out with 110 g of BaBr2 and 210 g of InP. What is the limiting reagent?        b) How much (mass in grams) Ba2In5P5 would you make if the reaction went to completion?    c) After isolating and purifying the product, you only obtained 56 g of Ba2In5P5. What was your percent yield?
When octane (C8H18) is burned in a particular internal combustion engine, the yield of products (carbon dioxide and water) is 93%.  What mass of carbon dioxide will be produced in this engine when 15.0 g of octane is burned with 15.0 g of oxygen gas?  A)  13 g               B)  12 g                C)  21 g                 D)  54 g               E)  43 g
The fizz produced when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dissolved in water is due to the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid, C6H8O7: 3NaHCO3 (aq) + C6H8O7 (aq) → 3CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l) + Na 3C6H5O7 (aq) If 1.00 g of sodium bicarbonate and 1.00 g of citric acid are allowed to react, what is the limiting reagent?     How many grams of carbon dioxide can theoretically form?   How much of the excess reagent is left over after the reaction has come to completion?   If you perform the experiment with an actual yield of 0.49 g, what is your percent yield for the reaction?
In the following reaction, the theoretical yield of Fe was calculated to be 105 g. If the actual yield was 87.9 g, what was the percent yield? Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO 2 a) 65.3 % b) 83.7 % c) 112 % d) 97.8 % e) 59.0 %  
Determine the percent yield of a reaction that produces 28.65 g of Fe when 50.00 g of Fe2O3 react with excess Al according to the following reaction.  Fe 2O3(s) + 2 Al (s) → Al2O3 (s) + 2 Fe (s) A) 57.30 % B) 61.03 % C) 81.93 % D) 28.65 % E) 20.02 %
What is the percent yield of the reaction shown below if 29.6 g of gold (Au) are combined with 50.0 mL of 4.00 M HOCl (M = 54.46) in the presence of excess HCl, and 33.9 g of AuCl3 (M = 303.32) are obtained as a product? Enter your answer with 2 decimal places and no units. 2Au(s) + 3HCl(aq) + 3HOCl(aq) → 2AuCl3(s) + 3H2O(l)  
If 12.362 g of nitrogen is allowed to react with 4.133 g of hydrogen at 49.05 oC and the percent yield for the reaction is 55.61% , how much ammonia would be produced? The reaction proceeds as follows: N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) A. 8.361 g B. 12.93 g C. 15.04 g D. 23.24 g E. 6.856 g    
Lithium nitride, Li3N is an interesting salt. It is a fast ion conductor and it has also been studied as an anode material for batteries. Lithium nitride is produced according to the following reaction: 6 Li (s) + N 2 (g) → 2 Li3N (s) If the percent yield of the reaction at 85.00 oC is 65.28% and the reaction yields 18.326 g of lithium nitride from an experimental quality of lithium, how much lithium nitride would theoretically be expected in the experiment? A. 3.560 g B. 11.96 g C. 28.07 g D. 27.89 g E. 18.25 g
Urea (CH4N2O) is a common fertilizer that is synthesized by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with carbon dioxide: 2 NH3 (aq) + CO2 (aq)      →       CH 4N2O (aq) + H2O (l) In an industrial synthesis of urea, a chemist combines 136.4 kg of ammonia with 211.4 kg of carbon dioxide and obtains 168.4 kg of urea. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of urea and percent yield for the reaction.  For the choices below, what is the percent yield? A. 70.0% B. 58.4% C. 84.9 % D. 79.2%
The combustion of liquid ethanol (C2 H5 OH) produces carbon dioxide and water. After 4.63 mL of ethanol (density = 0.789/ml) was allowed to burn in the presence of 15.60 g of oxygen gas, 3.73 mL of water (density = 1.00/ml) was collected.Determine the percent yield of H2 O for the reaction.
What is the the percent yield?
We typically calculate the percent yield using the actual yield and theoretical yield in units of mass (grams or kilograms).Would the percent yield be different if the actual yield and theoretical yield were in units of amount (moles)?
When ethane (C2H6) reacts with chlorine (Cl2), the main product is C2H5Cl; but other products containing Cl, such as C2H4Cl2, are also obtained in small quantities. The formation of these other products reduces the yield of C2H5Cl.Calculate the percent yield of C2 H5 Cl if the reaction produces 181 g of C2 H5 Cl.
Paclitaxel, C47H51NO14, is an anticancer compound that is difficult to make in the lab. One reported synthesis requires 11 steps, and the final yield of paclitaxel is only 6 %.Assuming all steps have equivalent yields, what is the average percent yield for each step in the synthesis?
Ammonia, NH3, reacts with the hypochlorite ion, OCl - to produce hydrazine, N2H4.2NH3 + OCl – → N2H4 + Cl – + H2OWhat is the percent yield of hydrazine when 5.85 g of NH 3 reacts with excess hypochlorite to produce 2.60 g of N2H4? Molar mass: NH3 = 17.031 g/mol; N2H4= 32.046 g/molA. 47.3%B. 23.6%C. 11.8%D. 8.25%
Consider the reaction shown below:   3 H2(g) + N2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g)When a certain amount of hydrogen reacts in excess nitrogen, it produces 2.153 g of ammonia with a percent yield of 38.25%, what is the theoretical yield?A) 5.629 gB) 0.1778 gC) 0.8235 gD) 0.05701 gE) 7.768 g
Combining 0.254 mol of Fe2O3 with excess carbon produced 12.8 g of Fe.Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3COa) What is the actual yield of iron in moles?b)What was the theoretical yield of iron in moles?c)What was the percent yield?
Assuming an efficiency of 30.60%, calculate the actual yield of magnesium nitrate formed from 140.2 g of magnesium and excess copper (II) nitrate.Mg + Cu(NO3)2 → Mg(NO3)2 + Cu
Ammonia, NH3, reacts with hypochlorite ion, OCI -, to produce hydrazine N2H4. How many moles of hydrazine are produced from 5.85 mol of ammonia if the reaction has a 78.2% yield?2 NH3 + OCl- → N2H4 + Cl- + H2Oa) 2.29 molb) 2.92 molc) 4.57 mold) 9.15 mol
When heated, lithium reacts with nitrogen to form lithium nitride6 Li(s) + N2(g) → 2 Li3NWhat is the theoretical yield of Li3N grams when 12.3 g of Li are heated in excess N 2 ? ___________g What is the percent yield of the reaction if the actual yield of Li3N is 5.89g ?____________% 
Determine the percent yield of a reaction that produces 28.65 g of Fe when 50.00 g of Fe2O3 react with excess Al according to the following reaction. (Molar masses: Fe = 55.85 g/mol, O = 16.00 g/mol, Fe2O3 = 159.70 g/mol)Fe2O3 (s) + 2 Al (s)  →  Al 2O3 (s) + 2 Fe (s)A. 61.03 %B. 28.65 %C. 57.30 %D. 20.02 %E. 81.93 %
Consider the general chemical equation: 2A + B → 3C. Assume that you start with 100.0 g of substance A and you eventually isolate 500g of substance C. If you know that the molar mass of A is 20 g mol-1 and the molar mass of C is 72 g mol -1, find the actual yield, the theoretical yield and the % yield of the reaction that is represented by the above general chemical equation.
DDT, an insecticide harmful to fish, birds, and humans, is produced by the following reaction:     2C 6H5Cl      +    C 2HOCl3     →    C14H9Cl5    +   H2Ochlorobenzene         chloral                   DDT In a government lab, 1142 g of chlorobenzene is reacted with 485 g of chloral.d. If the actual yield of DDT is 200.0 g, what is the percent yield?
Bornite (Cu3FeS3) is a copper ore used in the production of copper. When heated, the following reaction occurs:2Cu3FeS3(s) + 7O2(g) → 6Cu(s) + 2FeO(s) + 6SO2(g)If 2.50 metric tons of bornite is reacted with excess O 2 and the process has an 86.3% yield of copper, what mass of copper is produced? 
Sodium and nitrogen combine to form sodium nitride;6Na(s)+N2(g) → 2Na3N(s)a) if 80.0 g of sodium is mixed with 20.0 g of nitrogen gas, what mass sodium nitride forms?b) If the reaction in part "a)" has a percent yield 75.0%, how much sodium nitride is actually produced?
Antimony reacts with sulfur according to this equation.2Sb(s) + 3S(s) → Sb2S3(s)What is the percentage yield for a reaction in which 1.40 g of Sb 2S3 (molar mass 339.7 g/mol) is obtained from 1.73 g antimony (molar mass 121.8 g/mol) reacting and a slight excess of sulfur (molar mass 32.07 g/mol)?A) 80.9%B) 58.0%C) 40.5%D) 29.0%
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was prepared by reacting 13.2 g of sulfur and 5.0 g of oxygen. Calculate the percent yield of the reaction if 0.10 moles of SO2 were obtained from the reaction S + O2 → SO2     
Magnesium oxide can be made by heating magnesium metal in the presence of oxygen. The balanced equation for the reaction is:2 Mg (s) + O2(g)      →       2 MgO (s) When 10.1 g of Mg reacts with 10.5 g O2 , 11.9 g MgO is collected. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield and percent yield for the reaction. 
Consider the general chemical equation: 3A → 2B Assume that you start with 120.0 g of substance A and you eventually isolate 22.0 g of substance B. If you know that the molar mass of A is 60.0 g mol-1 and the molar mass of B is 33.0 g mol-1, find the % yield of the reaction.    
Ammonia is produced by the millions of tons annually for use as a fertilizer. It is commonly made from N2 and H2 by the Haber process. Because the reaction reaches equilibrium before going completely to product, the stoichiometric amount of ammonia is not obtained. At a particular temperature and pressure, 10.0 g of H2 reacts with 20.0 g of N2 to form ammonia. When equilibrium is reached, 15.0 g of NH3 has formed.Calculate the percent yield.
Two successive reactions, A ⟶B and B ⟶C, have yields of 73% and 68%, respectively. What is the overall percent yield for conversion of A to C?
Two successive reactions, D ⟶E and E ⟶F, haveyields of 48% and 73%, respectively. What is the overall percent yield for conversion of D to F?
Aspirin can be made in the laboratory by reacting acetic anhydride (C4H6O3) with salicylic acid (C7H6O3) to form aspirin (C9H8O4) and acetic acid (C2H4O2). The balanced equation isC4H6O3 + C7H6O3 → C9H8O4 + C2H4O2In a laboratory synthesis, a student begins with 3.00 mL of acetic anhydride (density = 1.08/ml) and 1.26 g of salicylic acid. Once the reaction is complete, the student collects 1.23 g of aspirin.Determine the percent yield of aspirin for the reaction.
What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 45.5 g oftungsten(VI) oxide (WO 3) reacts with excess hydrogen gas to produce metallic tungsten and 9.60 mL of water (d = 1.00 g/mL)?
What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 200. g of phosphorus trichloride reacts with excess water to form 128 g of HCl and aqueous phosphorous acid (H3PO3)?
A reaction has a theoretical yield of 45.8 g. When the reaction is carried out, 37.2 g of the product is obtained.What is the percent yield?
The reaction of ethane gas (C2H6) with chlorine gas produces C2H5Cl as its main product (along with HCl). In addition, the reaction invariably produces a variety of other minor products, including C2H4Cl2, C2H3Cl3, and others. Naturally, the production of these minor products reduces the yield of the main product. Calculate the percent yield of C2H5Cl if the reaction of 300. g of ethane with 650. g of chlorine produced 490. g of C2H5Cl.
DDT, an insecticide harmful to fish, birds, and humans, is produced by the following reaction:2 C6H5Cl + C2HOCl3 → C14H9Cl5 + H2O  chlorobenzene          chloral                        DDTIn a government lab, 1142 g of chlorobenzene is reacted with 485 g of chloral.  If the actual yield of DDT is 200.0 g, what is the percent yield?
If 3.00 g of titanium metal is reacted with 6.00 g of chlorine gas, Cl2, to form 7.7 g of titanium (IV) chloride in a combination reaction, what is the percent yield of the product?
A student isolated 25 g of a compound following a procedure that would theoretically yield 81 g. What was his percent yield?
A sample of 0.53 g of carbon dioxide was obtained by heating 1.31 g of calcium carbonate. What is the percent yield for this reaction?CaCO3(s) ⟶ CaO(s) + CO2(s)
Freon-12, CCl2F2, is prepared from CCl4 by reaction with HF. The other product of this reaction is HCl. Outline the steps needed to determine the percent yield of a reaction that produces 12.5 g of CCl2F2 from 32.9 g of CCl4. Freon-12 has been banned and is no longer used as a refrigerant because it catalyzes the decomposition of ozone and has a very long lifetime in the atmosphere. Determine the percent yield.
Toluene, C6H5CH3, is oxidized by air under carefully controlled conditions to benzoic acid, C6H5CO2H, which is used to prepare the food preservative sodium benzoate, C 6H5CO2Na. What is the percent yield of a reaction that converts 1.000 kg of toluene to 1.21 kg of benzoic acid?2C6H5CH3 + 3O2 ⟶ 2C6H5CO2H + 2H2O
In a laboratory experiment, the reaction of 3.0 mol of H 2 with 2.0 mol of I2 produced 1.0 mol of HI. Determine the theoretical yield in grams and the percent yield for this reaction.
Outline the steps needed to solve the following problem, then do the calculations. Ether, (C2H5)2O, which was originally used as an anesthetic but has been replaced by safer and more effective medications, is prepared by the reaction of ethanol with sulfuric acid.2C2H5OH + H2SO4⟶ (C2H5)2O + H2SO4∙H2OWhat is the percent yield of ether if 1.17 L (d = 0.7134 g/mL) is isolated from the reaction of 1.500 L of C2H5OH (d = 0.7894 g/mL)?
Uranium can be isolated from its ores by dissolving it as UO 2(NO3)2, then separating it as solid UO2(C2O4)∙3H2O. Addition of 0.4031 g of sodium oxalate, Na 2C2O4, to a solution containing 1.481 g of uranyl nitrate, UO2(NO3)2, yields 1.073 g of solid UO2(C2O4)∙3H2O.Na2C2O4 + UO2(NO3)2 + 3H2O ⟶ UO2(C2O4)∙3H2O + 2NaNO3Determine the limiting reactant and the percent yield of this reaction.
The phosphorus pentoxide used to produce phosphoric acid for cola soft drinks is prepared by burning phosphorus in oxygen.(a) What is the limiting reactant when 0.200 mol of P4 and 0.200 mol of O2 react according to:P4 + 5O2 ⟶ P4O10(b) Calculate the percent yield if 10.0 g of P4O10 is isolated from the reaction.
During studies of the reaction in Sample Problem 3.20, 2N 2H4(l) + N2O4(l) ⟶3N2(g) + 4H2O(g). A chemical engineer measured a less-than-expected yield of N 2 and discovered that the following side reaction occurs: N2H4(l) + 2N2O4(l) ⟶6NO(g) + 2H2O(g)In one experiment, 10.0 g of NO formed when 100.0 g of each reactant was used. What is the highest percent yield of N2 that can be expected?
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4) is made by reacting salicylic acid (C 7H6O3) with acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O]: C7H6O3(s) + (CH3CO)2O(l) ⟶C9H8O4(s) + CH3COOH(l) In one preparation, 3.077 g of salicylic acid and 5.50 mL of acetic anhydride react to form 3.281 g of aspirin. (b) What is the percent yield of this reaction?
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4) is made by reacting salicylic acid (C 7H6O3) with acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O]: C7H6O3(s) + (CH3CO)2O(l) ⟶C9H8O4(s) + CH3COOH(l) In one preparation, 3.077 g of salicylic acid and 5.50 mL of acetic anhydride react to form 3.281 g of aspirin. (c) What is the percent atom economy of this reaction?
The rocket fuel hydrazine (N2H4) is made by the three-step Raschig process, which has the following overall equation: NaOCl(aq) + 2NH3(aq) ⟶N2H4(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) What is the percent atom economy of this process?
Urea (CH4N2O) is a common fertilizer that can be synthesized by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with carbon dioxide as follows: 2NH3(aq) + CO2(aq) → CH4N2O(aq) + H2O(l). In an industrial synthesis of urea, a chemist combines 133.0 kg of ammonia with 211.4 kg of carbon dioxide and obtains 173.0 kg of urea.Determine the percent yield for the reaction.
Mining companies use this reaction to obtain iron from iron ore:Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) → 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)The reaction of 182 g of Fe2O3 with 84.1 g of CO produces 73.1 g of Fe.Determine the percent yield of solid iron.
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the intoxicant in alcoholic beverages, is also used to make other organic compounds. In concentrated sulfuric acid, ethanol forms diethyl ether and water: 2CH3CH2OH(l) ⟶CH3CH2OCH2CH3(l) + H2O(g) In a side reaction, some ethanol forms ethylene and water: CH3CH2OH(l) ⟶CH2CH2(g) + H2O(g) (a) If 50.0 g of ethanol yields 35.9 g of diethyl ether, what is the percent yield of diethyl ether?
When powdered zinc is heated with sulfur, a violent reaction occurs, and zinc sulfide forms: Zn(s) + S8(s) ⟶ZnS(s) [unbalanced] Some of the reactants also combine with oxygen in air to form zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide. When 83.2 g of Zn reacts with 52.4 g of S8, 104.4 g of ZnS forms.(a) What is the percent yield of ZnS?
The zirconium oxalate K2Zr(C2O4)3(H2C2O4)·H2O was synthesized by mixing 1.68 g of ZrOCl2·8H2O with 5.20 g of H2C2O4·2H2O and an excess of aqueous KOH. After 2 months, 1.25 g of crystalline product was obtained, along with aqueous KCl and water. Calculate the percent yield.
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), NaHCO3, can be purified by dissolving it in hot water (60 °C), filtering to remove insoluble impurities, cooling to 0 °C to precipitate solid NaHCO3, and then filtering to remove the solid, leaving soluble impurities in solution. Any NaHCO3 that remains in solution is not recovered. The solubility of NaHCO3 in hot water of 60 °C is 164 g/L. Its solubility in cold water of 0 °C is 69 g/L. What is the percent yield of NaHCO3 when it is purified by this method?
Magnesium oxide can be made by heating magnesium metal in the presence of the oxygen. The balanced equation for the reaction is2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)When 10.1 g Mg is allowed to react with 10.5 g O2, 12.0 g MgO is collected.Determine the percent yield for the reaction.
Many computer chips are manufactured from silicon, which occurs in nature as SiO2. When SiO2 is heated to melting, it reacts with solid carbon to form liquid silicon and carbon monoxide gas. In an industrial preparation of silicon, 155.9 kg of SiO2 is allowed to react with 78.4 kg of carbon to produce 66.2 kg of silicon.Determine the percent yield for the reaction.
When hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled into a solution of sodium hydroxide, the reaction forms sodium sulfide and water.How many grams of sodium sulfide are formed if 1.60 g of hydrogen sulfide is bubbled into a solution containing 2.13 g of sodium hydroxide, assuming that the sodium sulfide is made in 93.0 % yield?
Limestone (CaCO3) is used to remove acidic pollutants from smokestack flue gases. It is heated to form lime (CaO), which reacts with sulfur dioxide to form calcium sulfite. Assuming a 70.% yield in the overall reaction, what mass of limestone is required to remove all the sulfur dioxide formed by the combustion of 8.5×104 kg of coal that is 0.33 mass % sulfur?
When 20.5 g of methane and 45.0 g of chlorine gas undergo a reaction that has a 75.0% yield, what mass (g) of hloromethane (CH3Cl) forms? Hydrogen chloride also forms.
When 56.6 g of calcium and 30.5 g of nitrogen gas undergo a reaction that has a 93.0% yield, what mass (g) of calcium nitride forms?
Titanium occurs in the magnetic mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3), which is often found mixed up with sand. The ilmenite can be separated from the sand with magnets. The titanium can then be extracted from the ilmenite by the following set of reactions:FeTiO3(s) + 3 Cl2 (g) + 3 C(s) → 3 CO(g) + FeCl2(s) + TiCl4(g)TiCl4(g) + 2 Mg(s) → MgCl2(l) + Ti(s)Suppose that an ilmenite-sand mixture contains 22.6 % ilmenite by mass and that the first reaction is carried out with a 91.1 % yield. If the second reaction is carried out with an 86.1 % yield, what mass of titanium can be obtained from 1.30 kg of the ilmenite-sand mixture?
Bacterial digestion is an economical method of sewage treatment. The reaction5 CO2 (g) + 55NH4+ (aq) + 76 O2 (g) —bacteria→C5H7O2N (s) + 54 NO2- (aq) + 52 H2O (l) + 109 H+ (aq)is an intermediate step in the conversion of the nitrogen in organic compounds into nitrate ions. What mass of C5H7O2N is produced in a treatment plant for every 1.0 x 104 kg of wastewater containing 3.0% NH4+ ions by mass? Assume that 95% of the ammonium ions are consumed by the bacteria.
Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is used industrially in many organic syntheses. One way to prepare it is by reacting sodium hydride with gaseous diborane (B2H6). Assuming an 88.5% yield, how many grams of NaBH4 can be prepared by reacting 7.98 g of sodium hydride and 8.16 g of diborane?
Bornite (Cu3FeS3) is a copper ore used in the production of copper. When heated, the following reaction occurs:2 Cu 3FeS 3 (s) + 7 O2 (g) → 6 Cu (s) + 2 FeO (s) + 6 SO 2 (g)If 2.50 metric tons of bornite is reacted with excess O 2 and the process has an 86.3% yield of copper, what mass of copper is produced?
Consider the following unbalanced reaction:P4 (g) + F2 (g) → PF3 (g)What mass of F 2 is needed to produce 120. g of PF 3 if the reaction has a 78.1% yield?
Citric acid, C6H8O7, a component of jams, jellies, and fruity soft drinks, is prepared industrially via fermentation of sucrose by the mold Aspergillus niger. The equation representing this reaction is C12H22O11 + H2O + 3O2 ⟶ 2C6H8O7 + 4H2OWhat mass of citric acid is produced from exactly 1 metric ton (1.000 × 10 3 kg) of sucrose if the yield is 92.30%?
Write a balanced equation for the reaction depicted below: If each reactant molecule represents 1.25×10−2 mol and the reaction yield is 87%, how many grams of Si-containing product form?
Hydrogen gas is considered a clean fuel because it produces only water vapor when it burns. If the reaction has a 8.8% yield, what mass (g) of hydrogen forms 105 kg of water?
When acetylene gas, C2H2, reacts with oxygen gas, the products are carbon dioxide and water.(A) What is the balanced equation?(B) How many grams of water can be formed from the consumption of 8.98 grams of acetylene(C) How many grams of water can be formed from the consumption of 4.58 grams of oxygen(D) What is the theoretical yield of the reaction(E) The reaction yielded 1.00g of water. What is the percent yield?
The reaction for the industrial production of hydrogen cyanide is given below. 2CH4 + 2NH3 + 3O2 -->2HCN + 6H2O What mass of NH3 is required for the synthesis of 1.5 x 105 kg of HCN if the reaction has a 97.5% yield?
Each step in the process below has a 90.0% yield.CH4 + 4Cl2 → CCl4 + 4 HClCCl4 + 2 HF → CCl2F2 + 2 HClThe CCI4 formed in the first step is used as a reactant in the second step. If 4.50 mol of CH4 reacts, what is the total amount of HCl produced? Assume that Cl2 and HF are present in excess.
Ammonia, NH3, may react with oxygen to form nitrogen gas and water. 4NH (aq) +3O2 (g) → NH2 (aq) + 6H2O (l) If 2.25 g of NH3 reacts with 3.38 g O2 and produces 0.750 L of N2, at 295 K and 1.00 atm, which reactant is limiting? What is the percent yield of the reaction?
For the following reaction, 4.68 grams of sulfuric acid are mixed with excess barium hydroxide. The reaction yields 8.89 grams of barium sulfate. barium hydroxide (aq) + sulfuric acid (aq) → barium sulfate (s) + water (l) What is the theoretical yield of barium sulfate?What is the percent yield of barium sulfate? 
Enter your answer in the provided box. What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 200.0 g of phosphorus trichloride reacts with excess water to form 70.0 g of HCI and aqueous phosphorous acid (H3PO3)? 
For the following reaction, 3.80 grams of barium chloride are mixed with excess potassium sulfate. The reaction yields 3.80 grams of barium sulfate. barium chloride (aq) + potassium sulfate (aq) → barium sulfate (s)+ potassium chloride (aq) What is the theoretical yield of barium sulfate? What is the percent yield of barium sulfate? %
Nitrogen monoxide is produced by combustion in an automobile engine. For the following reaction, 4.61 grams of oxygen gas are mixed with excess nitrogen monoxide. Assume that the percent yield of nitrogen dioxide is 77.1 %. nitrogen monoxide (g) + oxygen (g) → nitrogen dioxide (g) What is the theoretical yield of nitrogen dioxide ? What is the actual yield of nitrogen dioxide ?
Assuming an efficiency of 49.30%, calculate the actual yield of magnesium nitrate formed from 144.4 g magnesium and excess copper(I) nitrate. Mg + Cu(NO3)2 → Mg(NO3)2 + CU
What is the percent yield of the reaction below if 55.3 g of solid iodine (molar mass = 253.8 g/mol) react with an excess of hydrogen gas to produce 43.1 g (the actual yield) of hydrogen iodide gas (molar mass = 127.91 g/mol)? H2 (g) + I2 (s) → 2HI (g) (i) 21.8% (ii) 33.7% (iii) 77.3% (iv) 87.1%
Consider this reaction, which occurs in the atmosphere and contributes to photochemical smog:C (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) If there is 10.48 g C and excess O2 present, the reaction yields 34.5 g CO2. Calculate the percent yield for the reaction. 
Baking soda (NaHCO3) can be made in large quantities by the following reaction:NaCI + NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NaHCO3 + NH4CIIf 9.87 g of NaCI reacts with excesses of the other reactants and 4.31 g of NaHCO3 is isolated, what is the percent yield of the reaction?
Nitrogen monoxide is produced by combustion in an automobile engine.For the following reaction, 4.64 grams of nitrogen monoxide are mixed with excess oxygen gas. The reaction yields 4.65 grams of nitrogen dioxide.nitrogen monoxide (g) + oxygen (g) → nitrogen dioxide (g) What is the theoretical yield of nitrogen dioxide? What is the percent yield for this reaction? 
Aspirin can be made in the laboratory by reacting acetic anhydride (C4H6O3) with salicylic acid (C7H6O3) to form aspirin (C9H8O4) and acetic acid (C2H4O2). The balanced equation is C4H6O3 + C7H6O3 → C9H8O4 + C2H4O2In a laboratory synthesis, a student begins with 3.00 mL of acetic anhydride (density = 1.08 g/ml) and 1.28 g of salicylic acid. Once the reaction is complete, the student collects 1.22 g of aspirin. Determine the theoretical yield of aspirin for the reaction. Determine the percent yield of aspirin for the reaction.
A 14.579 g sample of CaCl2 was added to 12.043 g of K2CO3 and mixed in water. A 3.531 g yield of CaCO3 was obtained. What is the limiting reagent? Calculate the percent yield of CaCO3.
A reaction of 31.9 g of Na and 41.3 g of Br 2 yields 51.5 g of NaBr. What is the percent yield? 2Na(s) + Br2 (g) → 2NaBr(s) 
Enter your answer in the provided box. What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 200. g of phosphorus trichloride reacts with excess water to form 119 g of HCl and aqueous phosphorous acid (H3PO3)?
In making wine, glucose (C6H12O6) is fermented to produce ethanol (C2H5OH) and carbon dioxide (CO2), according to the following reaction.C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 (a) lf the fermentation reaction starts with 70.0 g glucose, what is the theoretical yield of ethanol (in grams)? (b) If 18.0 g ethanol is produced, what is the percent yield of this reaction? %
1.68 g H2 is allowed to react with 9.94 g N2, producing 2.02 g NH3.Part AWhat is the theoretical yield in grams for this reaction under the given conditions? Express your answer to throe significant figures and include the appropriate units. Part B What is the percent yield for this reaction under the given conditions? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Chlorine gas can be prepared in the laboratory by the reaction of hydrochloric add with manganese(IV) oxide: 4HCI (aq) + MnO2 (s) → MnCI2 (aq) + 2H2O (l) + CI2 (g) You add 37.1 g of MnO2 to a solution containing 41.7 g of HCI. (a) What is the limiting reactant?                   • MnO2                 • HCl(b) What is the theoretical yield of CI2? (c) If the yield of the reaction is 78.5%, what is the actual yield of chlorine?
Enter your answer in the provided box. When 92.3 g of calcium and 51.0 g of nitrogen gas undergo a reaction that has a 83.7% yield, what mass of calcium nitride forms? 
Nickel (II) sulfate, used for nickel plating, is prepared by treatment of nickel (II) carbonate with sulfuric acid: NiCO3 + H2SO4 → NiSO4 + CO2 + H2OHow many grams of H2SO4 are needed to react with 14.1 g of NiCO3? Express your answer with the appropriate units. How many grams of NiSO4 are obtained if the yield is 87.4 %? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 
The reaction of 5.34 g of carbon with excess O 2 yields 13.75 g of CO2. What is the percent yield of this reaction?
A 0.182 g piece of solid aluminum reacts with gaseous oxygen from the atmosphere to form solid aluminum oxide. In the laboratory, a student weighs the mass of the aluminum oxide collected from this reaction as 0.187 g. 
For the following reaction, 5.13 grams of potassium hydroxide are mixed with excess carbon dioxide. The reaction yields 4.12 grams of potassium carbonate. carbon dioxide (g) + potassium hydroxide (aq) → potassium carbonate (aq) + water (I) What is the theoretical yield of potassium carbonate?What is the percent yield of potassium carbonate?
For the following reaction. 6.05 grams of silver nitrate are mixed with excess sodium chloride The reaction yields 3.83 grams of silver chloride.NaCI (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) → AgCI (s) + NaNO3 (aq) (1) What is the theoretical yield of silver chloride?  (2) What is the percent yield for this reaction?
O2 and CH4 react according to the following unbalanced chemical equation: O2 + CH4 → __CO + __H2 Given 2.15 g of O2 and 2.12 g of CH4, answer the following questions: (For the calculations, provide answers with 3 significant figures.) 1. Balance the chemical equation using the lowest integer coefficients. __O2 + __CH4 → CO + H2. 2. Calculate the mass (in g) of the excess reagent remaining after the reaction is complete. 3. Calculate the theoretical yield of CO (in g) from the reaction. 4. Determine the percent yield of CO if 3.05 g of CO is actually produced from the reaction. (Please do NOT include in your answer.)5. What is the limiting reagent? 
For the following reaction. 4.67 grams of sodium iodide are mixed with excess chlorine gas. The reaction yields 1.37 grams of sodium chloride. chlorine (g) + sodium iodide (s) → sodium chloride (s) + iodine (s) What is the theoretical yield of sodium chloride? What is the percent yield of sodium chloride?
For the following reaction, 5.13 grams of sulfur dioxide are mixed with excess oxygen gas. The reaction yields 4.30 grams of sulfur trioxide. sulfur dioxide (g) + oxygen (g) → sulfur trioxide (g) What is the theoretical yield of sulfur trioxide? What is the percent yield for this reaction ?
Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is used industrially in many organic syntheses. One way to prepare it is by reacting sodium hydride with gaseous diborane (B2H6). Assuming an 94.3% yield, how many grams of NaBH4 can be prepared by reacting 6.73 g of sodium hydride and 9.53 g of diborane?
Hydrazine, N2H4, may react with oxygen to form nitrogen gas and water. N2H4(aq) + O2(g) → N2(g) + 2H2O(I)If 3.65 g of N2H4 reacts and produces 0.650 L of N2, at 295 K and 1.00 atm, what is the percent yield of the reaction? 
Combining 0.319 mol of Fe2O3 with excess carbon produced 11.3 g of Fe.Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO What is the actual yield of iron in moles? What was the theoretical yield of iron in moles? What was the percent yield? 
Hydrazine, N2H4, may react with oxygen to form nitrogen gas and water. N2H4 (aq) + O2(g) → N2 (g) + 2H2O (l) If 3.25 g of N2H4 reacts and produces 0.650 L of N2, at 295 K and 1.00 atm, what is the percent yield of the reaction?
Be sure to answer all parts.Using the following chemical equation, answer each question. C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) (a) What is the theoretical yield of CO2 from 2.24 mol of charcoal? (b) What is the percent yield if the reaction gives 28.0 g of CO 2?
An iron nail rusts when exposed to oxygen. For the following reaction,  5.71 grams of iron are mixed with excess  oxygen gas. The reaction yields 7.36 grams of  iron(III) oxide. iron (s) + oxygen (g) → iron(III) oxide (s) What is the theoretical yield of  iron(III) oxide? What is the percent yield for this reaction ?
Calcium oxide reacts with water in a combination reaction to produce calcium hydroxide: CaO (s) + H2O (I) → Ca(OH)2 (s) In a particular experiment, a 1.50-g sample of CaO is reacted with excess water and 1.48 g of Ca(OH)2 is recovered What is the percent yield in this experiment? Select one: a. 99 b. 14.8c. 0.99 d. 101.2 e. 2.16 Calcium carbide (CaC2) reacts with water to produce acetylene (C2H2). CaC2 (s) + 2H2O (g) → Ca(OH)2 (s) + C2H2 (g)
A reaction of 43.9 g of Na and 56.1 g of Br2 yields 66.0 g of NaBr. What is the percent yield? 2Na (s) + Br2 (g) → 2NaBr (s)
Be sure to answer all parts.Methanol (CH4O), which is used as a fuel in high-performance racing cars, burns in the presence of O2 to form CO2 and H2O. The molar masses for all substances are given under the balanced equation. 2CH4O (l)       +   3O 2 (g)         →   2CO 2 (g)        +  4H 2O(g) 32.04 g/mol       32.00 g/mol       44.01 g/mol        18.02 g/mol a. What is the theoretical yield of CO 2 from 35.0 g of methanol? b. What is the percent yield of CO 2 if 26.8 g of CO 2 are formed?
Combining 0.277 mol of Fe2O3 with excess carbon produced 18.0 g of Fe.Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3COWhat is the actual yield of iron in moles?What was the theoretical yield of iron in moles?What was the percent yield?
For the following reaction, 6.92 grams of carbon tetrachloride are mixed with excess methane (CH4). The reaction yields 6.75 grams of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) methane (CH4) (g) + carbon tetrachloride (g) → dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) (g) What is the theoretical yield of dichloromethane (CH2CI2)? What is the percent yield for this reaction ? 
Combining 0.218 mol of Fe2O3 with excess carbon produced 19.6 g of Fe. Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO What is the actual yield of iron in moles? What was the theoretical yield of iron in moles? What was the percent yield?
Each step in the process below has a 80.0% yield. The CCI4 formed in the first step is used as a reactant in the second step. If 5.00 mol of CH4 reacts, what is the total amount of HCI produced? Assume that Cl2 and HF are present in excess.
A reaction of 55.1 g of Na and 30.3 g of Br2 yields 36.9 g of NaBr. What is the percent yield? 2Na(s) + Br2(g) → 2NaBr(s) 
For the following reaction, 3.63 grams of iron(III) oxide are mixed with excess hydrochloric acid. The reaction yields 1.16 grams of water. hydrochloric acid (aq) + iron(III) oxide (s) → water (I) + iron(III) chloride (aq) What is the theoretical yield of water? What is the percent yield of water?
For the following reaction, 4.36 grams of sulfuric acid are mixed with excess calcium hydroxide. The reaction yields 5.35 grams of calcium sulphate. sulfuric acid (aq) + calcium hydroxide (s) → calcium sulfate (s) + water (I) What is the theoretical yield of calcium sulfate? What Is the percent yield of calcium sulfate ?
For the following reaction, 4.40 grains of zinc oxide are mixed with excess water. The reaction yields 3.93 grains of zinc hydroxide. zinc oxide (s) + water (l) → zinc hydroxide (aq) What is the theoretical yield of zinc hydroxide? What is the percent yield for this reaction?
Hydrazine, N2H4, may react with oxygen to form nitrogen gas and water. N2H4 (aq) + O2 (g) → N2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) If 3.45 g of N2H4 reacts and produces 0.750 L of N2, at 295 K and 1.00 atm, what is the percent yield of the reaction?
Aspirin can be made in the laboratory by reacting acetic anhydride (C4H6O3) with salicylic acid (C7H6O3) to form aspirin (C9H8O4) and acetic acid (C2H4O2). The balanced equation is C4H6O3 + C7H6O3 → C9H8O4 + C2H4O2 ln a laboratory synthesis, a student begins with 2.90 mL of acetic anhydride (density = 1.08 g/ml) and 1.25 g of salicylic acid. Once the reaction is complete, the student collects 1.24 g of aspirin. Determine the theoretical yield of aspirin for the reaction. Determine the percent yield of aspirin for the reaction.
Combining 0.272 mol of Fe2O3 with excess carbon produced 17.7 g of Fe. Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO What is the actual yield of iron in moles? What was the theoretical yield of iron in moles? What was the percent yield? 
Enter your answer in the provided box. When 19.3 g of methane and 35.9 g of chlorine gas undergo a reaction that has a 64.7% yield, what mass of chloromethane (CH3Cl) forms? Hydrogen chloride also forms. 
Tetraphosphorus hexoxide is formed by the reaction of phosphorus with oxygen gas. If a mixture of 75.3 g of phosphorus and 38.7 g of oxygen produce 43.3 g of tetraphosphorous hexoxide, what is the percent yield for the reaction? (Please show all steps and methods).
Actual yield is affected by a. None of these b. Reverse reactions that cause products to reform reactants c. Side reactions that compete with the main reactions d. Amounts of reactants
How many grams of NH3 are needed to react with 96.2 g of K2PtCl4 ? How many grams of cisplatin are formed from 96.2 g of K2PtCl4 if the percent yield for the reaction is 95%?
What is the theoretical yield of ethyl chloride in the reaction of 19.6 g of ethylene with 50 g of hydrogen chloride? (For ethylene. MW = 28.0 amu; for hydrogen chloride, MW = 36.5 amu; for ethyl chloride, MW = 64.5 amu.)H2C = CH2 + HCl → CH3CH2ClWhat is the percent yield if 27.5 g of ethyl chloride is actually formed?
A reaction of 31.9 g of Na and 43.5 g of Br_2 yields 48.1 g of NaBr. What is the percent yield?2Na (s) + Br_2 (g) --> 2NaBr(s)
The reaction of 4.15 g of Cl2 with 2.20 g of P4 produces 4.92 g of PCl5. What is the percent yield?
Tetraphosphorus hexoxide (M = 219.9 g/mol) is formed by the reaction of phosphorus with oxygen gas P4 (s) + 3O2 (g) → P4O6 (s) If a mixture of 75 3 g of phosphorus and 38.7 g of oxygen produce 43.3 g of P4O6, what is the percent yield for the reaction? Select one:(a) 57.5% (b) 38.0% (c) 16.3% (d) 32.4% (e) 48.8%