Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Paramagnetism refers to elements or ions that contain at least one unpaired electron, while diamagnetism refers to elements or ions with no unpaired electrons. 

Understanding Paramagnetism & Diamagnetism

Concept #1: Paramagnetism vs. Diamagnetism 

An element or ion is diamagnetic when it has no unpaired electrons. 

An element or ion is paramagnetic when it has at least one unpaired electron. 

Example #1: Write the condensed electron configuration of each ion and state if the ion is   paramagnetic   or   diamagnetic.

a. Ni3+                       b. S2-

Practice: Write the condensed electron configuration and state if the ion is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.

Cu+

Additional Problems
How many elements in the second row (period) of the Periodic Table are diamagnetic in atomic form? a.  7 b.  1 c.  6 d.  0 e.  2
Which of the following elements are diamagnetic? I. H      II. He      III. Be     IV. B      V. C   a) I, II, III b) II, III c) II, III, IV d) III, IV, V e) I, III, IV
Which of the following individual atoms has a paramagnetic electronic structure? 1. Be 2. Mg 3. Li 4. Ne 5. He
How many of the following species are paramagnetic? Sc3+           Br  –           Mg 2+           Se a. 0 b. 2 c. 1 d. 4 e. 3
Which of the following species is diamagnetic? 1. Ti2+ 2. Ba 3. S 4. Ni2+
Which of the following ions is paramagnetic? A. Se2– B. Ba2+ C. Pb4+ D. Ti2+ E. Zn2+
Which of the following individual atoms has a paramagnetic electronic structure? 1. Be 2. Mg 3. Li 4. Ne 5. He
Which of the following has the largest number of unpaired electrons? a) 15P b) 22Ti c) 30Zn d) 13Al e) 26Fe
An atom Fe has two 4s electrons and six 3d electrons. How many unpaired electrons would there be in Fe2+ ion? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four
Which of these species (is/are) paramagnetic? Ti4+          Fe2+          Zn° (A) Fe2+ only (B) Zn° only (C) Ti4+ and Fe2+ only (D) Fe2+ and Zn° only
Species with unpaired electrons are paramagnetic and a. are seldom found in compounds of Groups IA, IIA, and IIIA. b. exist for at least one oxidation state of transition metals. c. are attracted to a magnetic field. d. each of these statements are true.
Diamagnetic substances a. are attracted to a magnetic field because they contain unpaired electrons. b. are repelled by a magnetic field because they contain only paired electrons. c. become permanently aligned in a magnetic field. d. are not affected by a magnetic field.
Give the electron configuration for each of the following elements and its ion. For the ion, state if it is  paramagnetic or  diamagnetic:  Cr   Cr+
You may want to reference (Pages 340 - 346) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Determine the number of unpaired electrons for argon.
For each of the ions O2+, N22-, Li2+ determine the number of unpaired electrons.
Consider the elements: B, C, N, O, F.Which element has three unpaired electrons?
What is meant by the term diamagnetism? How does a diamagnetic substance respond to a magnetic field?
Consider the elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P.Which element is diamagnetic?
Paramagnetism of O2. When liquid oxygen is poured through a magnet, it “sticks” to the poles.What would you expect to see if liquid nitrogen were poured between the poles of the magnet?
You may want to reference (Pages 336 - 372) Chapter 8 while completing this problem.Use electron configurations to explain why copper is paramagnetic while its 1+ ion is not.
What does the term paramagnetism mean?
Which of the following ions would you expect to be paramagnetic: O2+, N22-, Li2+, O22-?
Both vanadium and its 3+ ion are paramagnetic.Use electron configurations to explain why vanadium and its 3 + ion are paramagnetic.
How can one determine experimentally whether a substance is paramagnetic?
You may want to reference (Pages 372 - 382) Section 9.8 while completing this problem.Describe the magnetic properties of NO, NO+ , and NO-.
Explain the difference between a paramagnetic species and a diamagnetic one.
Which of the following individual atoms has a paramagnetic electronic structure?1. Ne2. Mg3. He4. Be5. Li
Rank these transition metal ions in order of decreasing number of unpaired electrons. Indicate if any overlap.Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu+, V3+, Mn4+
Select the element (s) that will have one unpaired electron in p orbital?a. Arb. Sc. Mgd. Fe. Ga
The electron configuration of Gd is [Xe]4f 75d 16s 2. How many unpaired electrons are in this atom?a) 1b) 2c) 7d) 8e) 9
Atomic nitrogen contains how many unpaired electrons, according to Hund’s rule?A. 1B. 0C. 2D. 3
Which atom or ion below contains the most total unpaired electrons?A. PB. Cr3+C. Fe3+D. S2-E. Pb2+
The electron configuration of Gd is [Xe]4f75d16s2. How many unpaired electrons are in this atom?A. 1B. 2C. 7D. 8E. 9
Give the complete electron configuration of cobalt, Co, the complete or abbreviated electron configuration, of Co2+, and Co3+, and predict the number of unpaired electrons in all three.
Write ground-state electronic configurations for the following atoms or ions and give the number of unpaired electrons:P(g)                                                                                   ___   unpaired electrons Ti(g)                                                                                   ___   unpaired electrons Ni2+(g)                                                                               ___   unpaired electrons 
a. How many electrons does a Co atom have in its 3d subshell?b. How many of those electrons are unpaired? 
Which of the following statements is true?A. We can determine the exact location of an electron if we know its energy.B. An electron in a 2s orbital can have the same n, l, and ml quantum numbers as an electron in a 3s orbital.C. Ni has two unpaired electrons in its 3d orbitals.D. In the building up of atoms, electrons occupy the 4f orbitals before the 6s orbitals.E. Only three quantum numbers are needed to uniquely describe an electron.
a. How many electrons does a Mn atom have in its 3d subshell? b. How many of those electrons are unpaired? 
a. Write the condensed electron configurations for the Ga atom. Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. b. Indicate how many unpaired electrons the Ga atom has.
Choose the paramagnetic species from below.a. Seb. Ti4+c. Ard. All of the above are paramagnetic.e. None of the above are paramagnetic.
Which of the following atoms has the largest number of unpaired electrons?A. SbB. SeC. ClD. NiE. Cd
The number of unpaired electrons in a neutral atom of iron (atomic number 26) is 1. none. 2. 1. 3. 3. 4. 2. 5. 4.
Which element has the most unpaired electrons in the orbital set indicated by parentheses? a. carbon (p) b. barium (s) c. oxygen (p) d. vanadium (d) e. chlorine (p)
Of the first row transition elements listed below, which is or are diamagnetic? (1) Ti (#22) (2) Fe (#26) (3) Zn (#30) a. (1) and (2) only b. (1) and (3) only c. (2) and (3) only d. only (1) OR only (2) OR only (3) e. (1), (2) and (3) - all three
The ground-state electron configuration of an Fe2+ ion is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6.  Therefore Fe2+ is a) diamagnetic. b) paramagnetic with one unpaired electron. c) paramagnetic with two unpaired electrons. d) paramagnetic with three unpaired electrons. e) paramagnetic with four unpaired electrons.
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (a) Ga
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (b) Ca
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (d) V
How many unpaired electrons are in an atom of Co in its ground state?a) 2b) 1c) 3 d) 7
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (d) I
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (e) Y
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (f) Pt
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms and indicate how many unpaired electrons each has: (f) Lu.
A cobalt atom would be expected to have _____ unpaired electrons.a) 0b) 1c) 2d) 3 e) 4
Select the diamagnetic ion.a. Mn2+b. Fe3+ c. P-d. Co2+e. Ni2+f. V3+g. O-h. Cu+i. Mg+
For Vanadium (V), which of the following describes the three valence electrons in 3d:A.  The electrons are each unpaired and all are in degenerate orbitalsB.  Two electrons are paired and all are in degenerate orbitalsC.  Two electrons are paired and those two are in a degenerate orbitalsD.  The electrons are each unpaired and none are in degenerate orbitalsE.  The electrons are each unpaired and two are in degenerate orbitals
The number of unpaired electrons in the chromium atom (atomic number 24) is a) 0b) 2c) 4d) 6e) 16
Choose the diamagnetic species from below.  A. Sn2+                     B. Br               C. P                     D. Cr                 E. None are diamagnetic
How many unpaired electrons does an atom of fluorine have? a) 3 b) 1 c) 2 d) 0 e) 4
For the following atoms/ions, write the noble gas electron configuration, draw out the electron configuration of each, and then state whether or not it has unpaired electrons.(a) Fe3+Noble gas configuration:Full Electron configuration:How many unpaired electrons? (b) Cu1+Noble gas configuration:Full Electron configuration:How many unpaired electrons?
How many unpaired electrons does an atom of carbon have in its ground state?a. 1b. 2c. 3d. 4
Classify the following substances as diamagnetic or paramagnetic based on its magnetic properties. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
Choose the diamagnetic species. A. Ga 3+ B. Cr 2+ C. N D. I E. None of the above species are diamagnetic
Classify each of these ions as diamagnetic or paramagnetic.Zn2+Ni2+Cu2+Co2+
In the ground-state electron configuration of Fe 3+ , how many unpaired electrons are present?
Using the noble gas shorthand, write the electron configurations of the following and provide the number of unpaired electrons in each.        a. O +        b. Al 3+        c. Zn 2+        d. Sr
Choose the paramagnetic species from below:a. Cd 2+b. O2-c. Nb3+d. Ca
Which gas-phase atom has no unpaired electrons in its ground state?a) Lib) Bec) Bd) C
How many unpaired electrons does oxygen have?
Rank these transition metal ions in order of decreasing number of unpaired electrons.Fe3+, Mn4+, V3+, Ni2+, Cu+
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 2A(2)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 5A(15)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 8A(18)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 3A(13)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 4A(14)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 7A(17)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 1A(1)?
How many unpaired electrons are present in a ground-state atom from Group 6A(16)?
Identify the element: The ground-state electron configuration contains three unpaired 6p electrons.
A certain oxygen atom has the electron configuration 1s22s22px22py2. How many unpaired electrons are present? Is this an excited state of oxygen? In going from this state to the ground state, would energy be released or absorbed?
Does the electron configuration 1s22s23p1 correspond to an excited state? Identify the atom and write the ground-state electron configuration if appropriate. How many unpaired electrons are present in this species?
Does the electron configuration 1s22s22p6 correspond to an excited state? Identify the atom and write the ground-state electron configuration if appropriate. How many unpaired electrons are present in this species?
Does the electron configuration 1s22s22p43s1 correspond to an excited state? Identify the atom and write the ground-state electron configuration if appropriate. How many unpaired electrons are present in this species?
Does the electron configuration [Ar]4s23d54p1 correspond to an excited state? Identify the atom and write the ground-state electron configuration if appropriate. How many unpaired electrons are present in this species?
Draw atomic orbital diagrams representing the ground-state electron configuration for Na (Sodium). How many unpaired electrons are present?
Draw atomic orbital diagrams representing the ground-state electron configuration for Co (cobalt). How many unpaired electrons are present?
Draw atomic orbital diagrams representing the ground-state electron configuration for Kr (krypton). How many unpaired electrons are present?
For elements 1–36, there are two exceptions to the filling order as predicted from the periodic table. Draw the atomic orbital diagrams for the two exceptions and indicate how many unpaired electrons are present.
Which of elements 1–36 have two unpaired electrons in the ground state?
Which of elements 1–36 have one unpaired electron in the ground state?
The first-row transition metals from chromium through zinc all have some biologic function in the human body. How many unpaired electrons are present in each of these first-row transition metals in the ground state?
Write the expected ground-state electron configuration for the element with one unpaired 5p electron that forms a covalent compound with fluorine.
Identify how many unpaired electrons are present in each of the following in the ground state: O, O+, O-, Os, Zr, S, F, Ar.
Write the expected ground-state electron configuration for the first-row transition metal with the most unpaired electrons.
Using only the periodic table inside the front cover of the text, write the expected ground-state electron configuration for an element with three unpaired 5d electrons.
Which of the following has two unpaired electrons?a. Mgb. Sic. Sd. Both Mg and Se. Both Si and S
Classify each of these ions as diamagnetic or paramagnetic.Cu2+Ni2+Zn2+Co2+
Palladium (Pd; Z = 46) is diamagnetic. Draw partial orbital diagrams to show which of the following electron configurations is consistent with this fact:(a) [Kr] 5s24d8               (b) [Kr] 4d  10               (c) [Kr] 5s 14d9
Name the element described in the following: Period 4 transition element that forms 3+ diamagnetic ion.
You may want to reference(Pages 357 - 358)Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Which species is diamagnetic? Cr2+, Zn, Mn, C
Which of these atoms are paramagnetic in their ground state?(a) Ga          (b) Si         (c) Be          (d) Te
Which of these ground-state ions produce paramagnetic compounds?(a) Ti2+          (b) Zn 2+          (c) Ca 2+          (d) Sn 2+
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of V 3+, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Cd 2+, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Co 3+, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Ag +, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Mo 3+, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Au +, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Mn 2+, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration of Hf 2+, and state if it is paramagnetic.
Niobium (Nb; Z = 41) has an anomalous ground-state electron configuration for a Group 5B(5) element: [Kr] 5s14d4. What is the expected electron configuration for elements in this group? Draw partial orbital diagrams to show how paramagnetic measurements could support niobium’s actual configuration.
The hot glowing gases around the Sun, the corona, can reach millions of degrees Celsius, temperatures high enough to remove many electrons from gaseous atoms. Iron ions with charges as high as 14+ have been observed in the corona. Which ions from Fe+ to Fe14+ are paramagnetic? Which would be most strongly attracted to a magnetic field?
One bit of evidence that the quantum mechanical model is “correct” lies in the magnetic properties of matter. Atoms with unpaired electrons are attracted by magnetic fields and thus are said to exhibit paramagnetism. The degree to which this effect is observed is directly related to the number of unpaired electrons present in the atom. Consider the ground-state electron configurations for Li, N, Ni, Te, Ba, and Hg. Which of these atoms would be expected to be paramagnetic, and how many unpaired electrons are present in each paramagnetic atom?
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.Enter the condensed electron configuration for Co2+.
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.Draw the orbital diagram for the ion Co2+.
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.Enter the condensed electron configuration for N3-.
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.Draw the orbital diagram for the ion Ca2+.
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.Enter the condensed electron configuration for Ca2+.
You may want to reference (Pages 357 - 365) Section 8.7 while completing this problem.Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.Draw the orbital diagram for the ion N3-.
In the ground-state electron configuration of Fe3+, how many unpaired electrons are present? Express your answer numerically as an integer.Build the orbital diagram for the ion most likely formed by phosphorus.