Normality represents the number of equivalents per liter of solution.
Concept #1: Understanding Normality
An equivalent is the mass of a compound that can either donate an H+ (Acids), accept an H+ (Bases) or transfer an electron (in Redox Reactions).
Example #1: Determine the number of equivalents for each of the acids given.
For an acid the variable n is based on the number of H+ ions it can donate.
Example #2: Determine the number of equivalents for the following base.
For a base the variable n is based on the number of hydroxide, OH–, ions present.
Example #3: Based on the given redox reaction determine the value for n.
For a redox reaction the number for n is based on the number of electrons transferred.
Example #4: What is the normality of a solution made by dissolving 325.1 g HNO3 in enough water to create a 750.0 mL solution?
Example #5: Determine the equivalent weight of the following compounds.
The equivalent weight of a compound is equal to its molecular mass divided by the variable n.
Example #6: What volume, in mL, of 50.0 g H2SO4 is needed to create a 0.300 N H2SO4 solution?
Example #7: If a concentrated 3.25 M H3PO4 solution possesses a density of 1.350 g/mL, what is its normality?