**Normality** represents the number of equivalents per liter of solution.

Concept #1: Understanding Normality

An equivalent is the mass of a compound that can either donate an H^{+ }(Acids), accept an H^{+} (Bases) or transfer an electron (in Redox Reactions).

Example #1: Determine the number of equivalents for each of the acids given.

For an acid the variable ** n** is based on the number of H

Example #2: Determine the number of equivalents for the following base.

For a base the variable ** n** is based on the number of hydroxide, OH

Example #3: Based on the given redox reaction determine the value for n.

For a redox reaction the number for * n *is based on the number of

Example #4: What is the normality of a solution made by dissolving 325.1 g HNO3 in enough water to create a 750.0 mL solution?

Example #5: Determine the equivalent weight of the following compounds.

The equivalent weight of a compound is equal to its molecular mass divided by the variable ** n**.

Example #6: What volume, in mL, of 50.0 g H2SO4 is needed to create a 0.300 N H2SO4 solution?

Example #7: If a concentrated 3.25 M H3PO4 solution possesses a density of 1.350 g/mL, what is its normality?

Calculate the normality of each of the following solutions.a. 0.250 M HClWhat is the equivalent mass for each of the acids or bases listed above?

Calculate the normality of each of the following solutions.b. 0.105 M H2SO4What is the equivalent mass for each of the acids or bases listed above?

Calculate the normality of each of the following solutions.d. 0.134 M NaOHWhat is the equivalent mass for each of the acids or bases listed above?

Calculate the normality of each of the following solutions.e. 0.00521 M Ca(OH)2What is the equivalent mass for each of the acids or bases listed above?

If the fluid inside a tree is about 0.1 M more concentrated in solute than the groundwater that bathes the roots, how high will a column of fluid rise in the tree at 25˚C? Assume that the density of the fluid is 1.0 g/cm3. (The density of mercury is 13.6 g/cm 3.)

Calculate the normality of each of the following solutions.c. 5.3 x 10-2 M H3PO4What is the equivalent mass for each of the acids or bases listed above?

To make a 4 N solution of NaOH how many grams of sodium hydroxide (mw = 40.00) would you dissolve in 100 mL? A) 4 g B) 8 g C) 10 g D) 16 g E) 20 g