Ch.3 - Chemical ReactionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Jules Bruno

An ionic compound is composed of a positive ion called a cation bonded to a negative ion called an anion. The cation can either be a metal or the ammonium ion, while the anion is a non-metal. 

Generally, ionic bonds form to lower the potential energy between positive and negative ions. 


How does an Ionic Bond form? 

The number of electrons in the outer shell of an element is based on its group number. The sodium (Na) atom is in Group 1 and the chlorine (Cl) atom is in Group 7. 

Electron arrangementsElectron Arrangements

Metals transfer their electron(s) to nonmetals based on differences in polarity and electronegativity properties. 

Oxidation-Reduction-Transfer-Electrons-Lose-GainTransfering Electron(s)The transferring of electrons creates ions with opposite charges that are attracted to each other. 

Sodium-Chloride-Solid-Ions-Binary-CompoundStructural Formula of Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

Lattice energy represents the energy released when 1 mole of an ionic crystal is formed from its gaseous ions. The stronger the lattice energy of an ionic compound then the greater the strength of the ionic bond, the higher its boiling point and melting point. 


Naming Ionic Compounds with Main Group Metals 

The Main Group Metals exclude the transition metal elements

Periodic-Table-Main-Group-Transition-MetallicPeriodic Table (Main Group & Transition Metals)

When it comes to naming an ionic compound with a main group metal we can use a set of easy to follow rules:


STEP 1: The metal is named and written first. 

For example, if we are given BaCl2 the name begins with barium


STEP 2: The nonmetal keeps its base name but has its suffix ending changed to –ide. 

Base-Names-Non-MetalsBase Names of Non-MetalsFor BaCl2 the nonmetal is chlorine and after its ending is changed we have chloride


STEP 3: Combine the first and last name to get the overall name of the ionic compound. 

The name of BaCl2 is barium chloride.


Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals 

The Transition Metals and Inner Transition Metals, of which are further divided into Lanthanides and Actinides are sometimes referred to as the Group B Elements.  

Periodic-Table-Transition-MetalsPeriodic Table (Transition Metals)

The transition metals have varying oxidation numbers and therefore possess multiple charges. As a result of these different potential charges we must use Roman Numerals when naming ionic compounds with transition metals. 


STEP 1: Determine the positive charge of the transition metal. 

For example, if we are given MnBr5 we will determine the charge of manganese by using the charge of bromine and the overall compound. 

Transition-Metal-ChargeCalculating Transition Metal Ion Charge

For MnBr5 we begin the name with manganese (V)


STEP 2: The nonmetal keeps its base name but has its suffix ending changed to –ide.

Base-Name-Non-Metals-Nomenclature-IUPACBase Name of Non-Metals For MnBr5 the nonmetal is bromine and after its suffix ending is changed we have bromide


STEP 3: Combine the first and last name to get the overall name of the ionic compound. 

The name of MnBr5 is manganese (V) bromide.


Naming Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions 

Recall that polyatomic ions represent compounds composed of multiple elements that possess an overall charge. When it comes to naming an ionic compound with a polyatomic ion(s) then we do the following: 


STEP 1: The positive ion named and written first. If the positive ion is a transition metal with multiple charges then we use a roman numeral. If the positive ion is a polyatomic ion then it keeps its name. 

For example, if we are given NH4NO2 the name begins with ammonium


STEP 2: The negative ion is written and named secondly. 

In NH4NO2 the negative ion is nitrite.


STEP 3: Combine the first and last name to get the overall name of the ionic compound. 

The name of NH4NO2 is ammonium nitrite.


How to determine the Ionic Compound Formula 

If we want to write the formula of an ionic compound from the name then we must work with the charges of the elements. 

Elements-Charges-Cheat-Sheet-Alkali-Alkaline-Earth-Halogen-Charges of Elements List

STEP 1: Based on the name of the ionic compound give the two ions that are involved. . 

For example, if we are given the name of aluminum oxide. 

Element-ChargesElement Charges

Alumium is in Group 3 and has a +3 charge and oxygen is in Group 6 and has a -2 charge. 


STEP 2: When the charges of the two ions are different numbers then we crisscross them. 

Aluminum-oxide-Al2O3Writing Formulas (Aluminum oxide)

When the charges of the two ions are the same number then they simply cancel out. 

Writing Formulas (Calcium oxide)

Other Models of Chemical Bonding

Besides naming ionic compounds it’ll become important to know how to name covalent compounds/molecular compounds and acids. Unlike ionic compounds, covalent compounds have the sharing of electrons between non-metals. 


Jules Bruno

Jules felt a void in his life after his English degree from Duke, so he started tutoring in 2007 and got a B.S. in Chemistry from FIU. He’s exceptionally skilled at making concepts dead simple and helping students in covalent bonds of knowledge.


Additional Problems
Give the formulas for the following compounds A)  dihydrogen oxide                           _______________ B)  nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate         ­­­­­­­­_______________ C)  sodium nitride                                ________________ D)  calcium perchlorate                       ________________
Give the formulas for the following compounds a)  dihydrogen oxide                           _________________ b)  nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate         ­­­­­­­­_________________ c)  sodium nitride                                _________________ d)  calcium perchlorate                       _________________
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula of the compound formed by Ga and F.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula of the compound formed by Li and H.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula of the compound formed by Al and I.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula of the compound formed by K and S.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the name of the compound formed by Ga and F.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the name of the compound formed by Li and H.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the name of the compound formed by Al and I.
Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements.Using the periodic table to guide you, predict the name of the compound formed by K and S.
Little is known about the properties of astatine, At, because of its rarity and high radioactivity. Nevertheless, it is possible for us to make many predictions about its properties.What is the chemical formula of the compound it forms with Na?
Predict the chemical formula for the ionic compound formed by Mg2 + and PO4 3 - .
Complete the table by filling in the formula for the ionic compound formed by each pair of cations and anions, as shown for the first pair. Ion K+ NH4+ Mg2+ Fe3+ Cl- KCl OH- CO32- PO43- Complete the first row of the table.
Complete the table by filling in the formula for the ionic compound formed by each pair of cations and anions, as shown for the first pair. Ion K+ NH4+ Mg2+ Fe3+ Cl- KCl OH- CO32- PO43- Complete the second row of the table.
Complete the table by filling in the formula for the ionic compound formed by each pair of cations and anions, as shown for the first pair. Ion K+ NH4+ Mg2+ Fe3+ Cl- KCl OH- CO32- PO43- Complete the third row of the table.
Complete the table by filling in the formula for the ionic compound formed by each pair of cations and anions, as shown for the first pair. Ion K+ NH4+ Mg2+ Fe3+ Cl- KCl OH- CO32- PO43- Complete the fourth row of the table.
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.magnesium and sulfur
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.barium and oxygen
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.strontium and bromine
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.beryllium and chlorine
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.aluminum and sulfur
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.aluminum and oxygen
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.sodium and oxygen
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements.strontium and iodine
Write a formula for the compound that forms between barium and each polyatomic ion:hydroxide
Write a formula for the compound that forms between barium and each polyatomic ion:chromate
Write a formula for the compound that forms between barium and each polyatomic ion:phosphate
Write a formula for the compound that forms between barium and each polyatomic ion:cyanide
Give the name from the formula or the formula from the name for each of the following hydrated ionic compounds.iridium(III) bromide tetrahydrate
Give the name from the formula or the formula from the name for each of the following hydrated ionic compounds.potassium carbonate dihydrate
Give the name from the formula or the formula from the name for each of the following hydrated ionic compounds.cobalt(II) phosphate octahydrate
Give the name from the formula or the formula from the name for each of the following hydrated ionic compounds.chromium(III) phosphate trihydrate
Use the nomenclature flow chart (the following figure) to name each compound. SrCl2
Use the nomenclature flow chart (the following figure) to name each compound. SnO2
Name the following ionic compounds:Li2O
Use the nomenclature flow chart (the following figure) to name each compound. BaCl2
Use the nomenclature flow chart (the following figure) to name each compound. CrCl3
Use the nomenclature flow chart (the following figure) to name each compound. KClO3
Name the following ionic compounds:Fe(OH)2
Name the following ionic compounds:Ca(C2 H3 O2 )2
Use the nomenclature flow chart (the following figure) to name each compound. PbSO4
Name the following ionic compounds:Cr2 (CO3 )3
Name each ionic compound.Mg3 N2
Name each ionic compound.Na2 O
Name each ionic compound.Li2 S
Name each ionic compound.KI
Give each ionic compound an appropriate name.SnO
Give each ionic compound an appropriate name.Cr2 S3
Give each ionic compound an appropriate name.RbI
Give each ionic compound an appropriate name.BaBr2
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.CuNO2
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.Mg(C2 H3 O2 )2
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.Ba(NO3 )2
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.Pb(C2 H3 O2 )2
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.Ba(OH)2
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.NH4 I
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.NaBrO4
Name each ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion.Fe(OH)3
Give the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds.NaCl (table salt) ,
Give the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds.NaHCO3 (baking soda),
Give the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds.NaOCl (in many bleaches),
Give the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds.NaOH (caustic soda),
Give the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds.(NH4 )2 CO3 (smelling salts),
Give the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds.CaSO4 (plaster of Paris).
Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systematic name.saltpeter, KNO3
Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systematic name.soda ash, Na2CO3
Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systematic name.lime, CaO
Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systematic name.Epsom salts, MgSO4
Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systematic name.milk of magnesia, Mg (OH) 2
Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds.sodium hydrogen sulfite
Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds.lithium permanganate
Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds.silver nitrate
Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds.potassium sulfate
Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds.rubidium hydrogen sulfate
Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds.potassium hydrogen carbonate
Calcium bicarbonate is also called calcium hydrogen carbonate.Write the formula for this compound.
Calcium bicarbonate is also called calcium hydrogen carbonate.Predict the formula for potassium bisulfate.
Calcium bicarbonate is also called calcium hydrogen carbonate.Predict the formula for lithium dihydrogen phosphate.
Write the chemical formula for aluminum hydroxide.
Write the chemical formula for potassium sulfate.
Write the chemical formula for copper(I) oxide.
Write the chemical formula for zinc nitrate.
Write the chemical formula for mercury(II) bromide.
Write the chemical formula for iron(III) carbonate.
Write the chemical formula for each substance mentioned in the following word descriptions (use the front inside cover of the textbook to find the symbols for the elements you dont know).Zinc carbonate can be heated to form zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
Write the chemical formula for each substance mentioned in the following word descriptions (use the front inside cover of the textbook to find the symbols for the elements you dont know).Vanadium(III) bromide is a colored solid.
Assume that you encounter the following sentences in your reading. What is the chemical formula for each substance mentioned?Sodium hydrogen carbonate is used as a deodorant.
Assume that you encounter the following sentences in your reading.