Naming Acids

Binary Acid Nomenclature

Concept: Rules for Naming Binary Acids

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Video Transcript

Before we begin, we should realize that acids come in two different forms. We have our binary acids and we have our oxy or oxoacids. Now let's take a look at the binary acids. What exactly are the features of a binary acid?
First of all, a binary acid has to have H+. That H+ will be connected to a negative ion, an anion. Now, remember this negative ion or anion comes in two different types for binary acids. It could either be a negative nonmetal. Example, we could have Cl-. Remember, chlorine is in group 7A, so its charge is -1. That H+ will combine with the Cl- to give us HCl. That will be an example of a binary acid.
Now, the anion could also be a negative polyatomic ion with no oxygens. A good example of polyatomic ion with no oxygens is CN-. The H+ and the CN- will combine to give us HCN, another type of binary acid.
So, what are we supposed to take from this? Well, we should realize that binary acids all have hydrogen involved. That hydrogen will be connected to non-metals that came from a negative ion. What we should also realize is that binary acids contain no oxygens at all. This is the difference between a binary acid and an oxy or oxo acid. Binary acids don't contain any oxygen, oxy or oxoacids do contain oxygen.
Now, we're going to say when it comes to naming binary acids, we follow these rules. We're going to say that prefix or the beginning of the name will be hydro. This hydro name comes from the H+ ion involved in creating our binary acid. We're going to say, we're going to use the base name of the nonmetal, the base name of the negative ion, the anion. We're going to say the suffix or ending of our binary acids will be -ic acid. 

binary acid is a covalent compound that contains an H+ ion connected to negative ion

Example: Write the formula for each of the following compounds:

a) Hydroiodic acid                                  b)  Hydroselenic acid                              c)  Hydrofluoric acid

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Problem: Give the systematic name for each of the following compounds:

a. HBr                    b. H2S                   c. HCN 

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Oxyacid Nomenclature

Concept: Rules for Naming Oxyacids

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Video Transcript

Okay, guys, we're going to continue with the same page that we’ve been on, but now we're going to learn how to name oxo or oxyacids. First thing firsts, what are the features of an oxy or oxoacid? Well, we have to say that they contain H+ and now the second feature is that they possess a negative polyatomic ion with oxygen, with oxygen or oxygens. So, that’s the defining characteristic of oxo or oxyacids. Here we have a polyatomic ion connected to our H+. That polyatomic ion has one or more oxygens present.
Now, what are the rules for naming these types of acids? We're going to say, if the polyatomic ion that’s involved in the oxy or oxoacids has 'ate' as the ending then we’re going to change that ‘ate’ ending to 'ic' acid. If the polyatomic ion ends with -ite, then we're going to say we change the -ite ending to 'ous' acid. Again, remembering your polyatomic ion is going to be essential for naming oxo or oxyacids. Without that, it’s going to be really difficult.

An oxyacid is a covalent compound that contains an H+ ion connected to a polyatomic ion containing oxygen

Example: Give the systematic name or formula for each of the following compounds:

a)  H2CO3                                             b)  Nitric acid                                         c)  H2SO4

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Problem: Give the systematic name or formula for each of the following compounds:

a. Hypobromous acid                b. HClO3                     c. Acetic Acid 

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