Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Dipole moments or polarity happen in molecules when there is an unequal sharing of electrons. 

Molecular Polarity

Concept #1: Understanding Molecular Polarity 

Both a molecule's shape and bond polarity can affect its overall polarity. 

Concept #2: The First Rule for Molecular Polarity

When the central element has no lone pairs and has the same surrounding elements then usually the molecule is nonpolar. 

Practice: Determine if carbon dioxide, CO2, is polar or nonpolar.

Example #1: Determine if silicon tetrachloride, SiCl4, is polar or nonpolar. 

Concept #3: The Second Rule for Molecular Polarity

When the central element has lone pairs then we must use element dipole arrows and lone pair dipole arrows to determine polarity. 

Practice: Determine if xenon tetrafluoride is polar or nonpolar.

Example #2: Determine if phosphorus trihydride, PH3, is polar or nonpolar. 

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. SiBr42-

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. H2S

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. PCl2F3

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. IF2-

Additional Problems
Classify the molecule AsCl3. 1. polar molecule with polar bonds 2. polar molecule with nonpolar bonds 3. nonpolar molecule with nonpolar bonds 4. nonpolar molecule with polar bonds
Of the molecules drawn below, which is non-polar? If they are all polar, then do not circle a structure. 
The molecules below are described as either polar or non-polar. Which one is incorrectly described? (a) OCN− - Polar (b) CH2Cl2 - Non-polar (c) CO2 - Non-polar (d) NH3 - Polar (e) SO2 - Polar
Complete this sentence:  The PCl 5 molecule has             A)      nonpolar bonds, and is a nonpolar molecule.             B)      nonpolar bonds, but is a polar molecule.             C)      polar bonds, and is a polar molecule.             D)      coordinate covalent bonds             E)      polar bonds, but is a nonpolar molecule.
Explain why CO2 is nonpolar, but OCS is polar?
Select the molecule that is the most polar a. PCI5 b. BrCl5 c. XeF4 d. CCl4 e. XeF2
Predict which of the following molecules is non-polar. a) HBr b) CF4 c) H2S d) NI3 e) CHCl3
Which molecule below is nonpolar?  a) SF4 b) OF2 c) PH3 d) CBrCl3 e) XeCl4
Which statement best describes the polarity of CF 2I2 a) the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C—I bonds cancel each other b) the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C—F bonds cancel each other c) depending on the arrangement of the surrounding atoms, the molecule could be polar or nonpolar d) the molecule is always polar e) the molecule is always nonpolar
Which of these is nonpolar?
Which of the following species is nonpolar? 1. SCl2 2. ClO3- 3. IF2- 4. IF5
Which of the following statements about SO 32- is true? 1. The bonds are polar and the ion is polar. 2. The bonds are polar and the ion is nonpolar. 3. The bonds are nonpolar and the ion is polar. 4. The bonds are nonpolar and the ion is nonpolar.
Which of the following statements about SF5 – is true? 1. The ion has polar bonds and the ion is polar. 2. The ion has polar bonds but the ion is nonpolar.  3. The ion has nonpolar bonds and the ion is nonpolar.  4. The ion has nonpolar bonds but the ion is polar. 
Which molecule below is nonpolar? a. SF4 b. OF2 c. PH3 d. CBrCl3 e. XeCl4
Which statement best describes the polarity of CF 2l2? a. the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C-l bonds cancel each other. b. the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C-F bonds cancel each other c. depending on the arrangement of the surrounding atoms, the molecule could be polar or nonpolar d. the molecule is always polar e. the molecule is always nonpolar
Which of the following shows these molecules in order from the most polar to least polar? a. CH4 > CF2Cl2 > CCl4 CCl2H2 b. CH4 > CF2H2 > CF2Cl2 > CCl4 > CCl2H2 c. CF2Cl2 > CF2H2 > CCl2H2 > CH4 = CCl4 d. CF2H2 > CCl2H2 > CF2Cl2 > CH4 = CCl4 e. CF2Cl2 > CF2H2 > CCl4 > CCl2H2 > CH4
Which of the following statements about polar molecules is  false? a. A molecule with polar bonds can be nonpolar. b. A molecule with polar bonds can be polar. c. A molecule with only nonpolar bonds can be polar. d. A molecule with 120° bond angles can be polar. e. A molecule with 180° bond angles can be polar.
Which one of the following is a nonpolar molecule with polar covalent bonds? a. NH3 b. H2Se c. SOBr2 (S is central atom) d. BeCl2 e. HCl
Which of the following isomers of PF 2Cl3 are polar? a) only I b) only II c) only III d) II and III e) I, II, and III
Choose the compound below that contains at least one polar covalent bond, but is nonpolar. A) SCl2 B) CF2Cl2 C) BCl3 D) GeH2Br2 E) All of the above are nonpolar and contain a polar covalent bond.
Which of the following statements concerning polar molecules is false? a. There must be at least one polar bond or one unshared pair of electrons on the central atom. b. If there are more than one polar bond, they must not be symmetrically arranged so that their polarities cancel. c. If there are more than one unshared pair of electrons on the central atom, they must not be symmetrically arranged so that their polarities cancel. d. There must be an odd number of polar bonds so that their polarities not cancel. e. A molecule with symmetrically arranged polar bonds can be polar if the central atom is bonded to atoms of different elements.
Consider four molecules I) CHCl3 II) CH4 III) CH3Cl IV) CCl4 Which of these exhibit permanent dipole-dipole interactions? 1. I, III, and IV only 2. III only 3. None of these 4. I only 5. I and III only
Draw the structure of a molecule with the formula C4H6Cl2 that has a dipole moment of 0.
Explain why CO2 and CCl4 are both nonpolar even though they contain polar bonds.
Why is polarity important?
Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.SCl2
Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.SCl4
Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.BrF5
At standard temperature and pressure the molar volumes of Cl2 and NH3 gases are 22.06 and 22.40 L, respectively. You may want to reference (Pages 437 - 438) Section 11.1 while completing this problem.Given the different molecular weights, dipole moments, and molecular shapes, why are their molar volumes nearly the same?
Classify CS2 as polar or nonpolar.
Acetone, (CH3 )2 CO, is widely used as an industrial solvent.Is the acetone molecule polar or nonpolar?
Determine whether the molecule COF2 is polar.
How do you determine whether a molecule is polar?
Determine whether the molecule S2 Cl2 is polar.
Determine whether the molecule SF4 is polar.
Determine whether the molecule IF5 is polar.
Determine whether the molecule CH2 CHCH3 is polar.
Determine whether the molecule CH3SH is polar.
You may want to reference (Pages 441 - 444) Section 10.5 while completing this problem.Indicate whether CF4 is polar.
CH3 F is a polar molecule, even though the tetrahedral geometry often leads to nonpolar molecules.Explain why the molecule CH3 F is polar.
Of the molecules PF3 and PCl3, which has bonds that are more polar?
Is H2O polar or nonpolar?
Is XeF2 polar or nonpolar?
Is BeCl2 polar or nonpolar?
Which of the molecules below will be polar?CS2, BF3, SO2, CH3Bra. CH3Br onlyb. CS2 onlyc. Both BF3 and CH3Brd. Both SO2 and CH3Br
Are SO3,XeF2,IF2- polar or nonpolar? How it is polar or nonpolar? Add formal charges and bond dipoles to all lewis dot structures.  According to Vallence bond theory , what is the hybridization of all atoms in SO 3? Describe the orbitals that overlap to form all bonds in SO3.
Specify the polarity of the bonds and the overall polarity of the molecule.# of Polar Bonds _____________Polar molecule (yes/no) _______________ 
Specify the polarity of the bonds and the overall polarity of the molecule.# of Polar Bonds _____________Polar molecule (yes/no) _______________
Is XeF4 polar or nonpolar? Explain your answer.
Is SCl4 polar or non polar?
Which of the following molecules is non-polar? A) XeF4 B) H2O C) PH3 D) O3 E) H2O2
Explain whether Cl2XeF2 is necessarily polar?
Choose from the compound below that contains at least one polar covalent bond, but is non-polar.a. HCNb. CF4c. SeBr4d. ICl3e. Both B and C are non-polar and contain a polar covalent bond
Consider the molecule IF3.i) What is the electron domain geometry and the molecular geometry of IF 3?ii) Is IF3 polar or nonpolar?
Consider the following moleculesI. BCl3        II. CHBr3 (C is the central atom)      III. Cl2        IV. XeBr2          V. COThese molecules have a zero net dipole moment (nonplolar)III, VIII, IV, VI, III, IVI, III, IV, VINone of them 
Determine whether each molecule given below is polar or nonpolar: NF3, XeF2, H2S, and CF4.
Which statement best describes the polarity of CF 2Cl2?a. Always polar.b. Always nonpolar.c. Depending on the arrangement of outer atoms, this molecule could be polar or nonpolar.
Which statement best describes the polarity of SF 4Cl2?a. Always polar.b. Always nonpolar.c. Depending on the arrangement of outer atoms, this molecule could be polar or nonpolar.
Which one of the following molecules is polar? a) PBr5 b) CCl4 c) BrF5 d) XeF2  e) XeF4
Which of the following compounds are polar:a. CBr4, XeF2, SCl4, BrF3, CH3OHb. XeF2, SCl4, BrF3, CH3OH onlyc. BrF3, CH3OH only d. SCl4, BrF3, CH3OH only
Rank the following molecules from the least polar to the most polar: CH2Br2, CF2Cl2, CH2F2, CH2Cl2, CBr4, CF2Br2.
How many of the following molecules are polar?a. BrCl3b. CS2c. SiF4d. SO3
Determine whether each molecule given below is polar or nonpolar. CF4, PBr5, XeF2, SF6   
Identify whether each molecule given below is polar or nonpolar. SiH3Br, SBr2, BrF3, BF3  
Is CS2 polar or nonpolar?
Which statement is true about the polarity of HCN, which has a structure of H-C≡N:?(Hint: The electronegativities of H, C, and N are 2.1, 2.5, and 3.0, respectively.)a. The carbon-nitrogen bond in HCN is a polar-covalent bondb. Both bonds in HCN are nonpolar covalent bondsc. The total molecular dipole moment in HCN points towards the H atomd. Statements a and c are correcte. Statements b and c are correct
a) PF3Cl2 is a nonpolar molecule. Based on this information, determine the F−P−F bond angle, the Cl−P−Cl bond angle, and the F−P−Cl bond angle. b) Which statement best describes the polarity of CF2Cl2?a. The molecule is always polar.b. The molecule is always nonpolar.c. Depending on the arrangement of outer atoms, this molecule could be polar or nonpolar.
Is ICl4- polar or nonpolar?
Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
Draw the lewis dot structure for CH 2Cl2. Is this molecule polar?
How would you describe the molecular polarity of SeCl 6?Nonpolar, because Se-Cl is a nonpolar bond and there is no lone pair on SeNonpolar, because Se-Cl is a polar bond but the geometry is symmetricPolar, because Se-Cl is a polar bond although the geometry is symmetricPolar, because Se-Cl is a polar bond and there is a lone pair on SePolar, because Se-Cl is a nonpolar bond but there is a lone pair on Se
Is the CH4 a polar or non-polar bond? What about the molecule as a whole? Is that molecule CH4 a polar or non-polar?
There are 3 different possible isomers of a dibromoethene molecule, C 2H2Br2. One of them has no net dipole moment, but the other two do. Draw Lewis structures for each of these isomers. Include H atoms.Nonpolar C2H2Br2 (one isomer)Polar C2H2Br2 (two isomers)
Why is CCl4 non-polar and SF4 polar?
How many of the following molecules are polar?CF4             PCl  3            H 2S            ICl 5a. 0b. 1c. 2d. 3e. 4
BrCl5 (bromine pentachloride) is sometimes called a polar molecule, sometimes called nonpolar. Which one is it REALLY and WHY?
Water is known as a polar molecule because (check all apply)a. The oxygen and hydrogen atoms have the same electronegativity.b. The hydrogen atom attracts electrons much more strongly than the oxygen atom.c. Water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.d. The oxygen atom has a greater attraction for electrons than the hydrogen atom does.e. Water dipole moment is equal to zero.f. The electrons of the covalent bond are not shared equally between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
Is O3 polar or non-polar?
For the molecules below, provide the Lewis dot structure, draw the three dimensional dash-wedge structure, and comment on the polarity of the molecule.a. Nitrous acid, HNO2b. Polypropylene, CH3CHCH2c. Percholorethylene, CCl2CCl2d. Sulfonyl fluoride, SO2F2
Is HBr a polar or non polar molecule?
How do you determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
Is ClF3 polar or non polar?
Which of the following molecules is nonpolar? a. NH3 b. OF2 c. CH3Cl d. H2O e. BeCl2   
Which of these molecules would you expect to be polar: Cl 2, ICl, BF3, SO2?a. ICl and SO2b. Cl2 and BF3c. ICl and BF3d. BF3 and SO2
Predict which molecules are polar. Select all that apply. a) AsF3 b) IOF5 c) CF4 d) CH2Cl2
Predict whether each of the following molecules is polar or nonpolar. XeF4, NH3, CH3Br, CCl4, SF4, GaH3
Describe the molecular dipole of OCl2.
Explain how a molecule that contains polar bonds can be nonpolar.
Which formula represents a nonpolar molecule?a. NH3b. H2Sc. CH4d. HCl
Identify the molecules with polar bonds and the polar molecules. a. CCl4  b. CH3Cl c. H2O d. CO2 e. O2
Classify these molecules as polar or nonpolar. CH3Cl CCl4 HF BCl3 H2O H2
Which choice best describes the polarity of ICl 5?a. The molecule is polar and has polar bonds.b. The molecule is nonpolar and has polar bonds.c. The molecule is polar and has nonpolar bonds.d. The molecule is nonpolar and has nonpolar bonds.
Predict whether each of the following molecules is polar or non-polar: IF, CS2, SO3, PCl3, SF6, IF5
There are 3 Lewis structures for C2H2Cl2 draw all three and indicate whether each is nonpolar or polar.Explain why one of these is structures  C2H2Cl2 is nonpolar and the other 2 are polar.There are 3 Lewis structures for [ NO3]- draw all three and compare polarity of the 3. 
Which of the following molecules is not necessarily polar?a. SeF4b. SO2c. CH2Cl2d. PH3e. Cl2XeF2
A useful solvent that will dissolve salts as well as organic compounds is the compound acetonitrile, H3CCN. It is present in paint strippers.(a) Write the Lewis structure for acetonitrile, and indicate the direction of the dipole moment in the molecule.
As a general rule, MXn molecules (where M represents a central atom and X represents terminal atoms; n = 2 – 5) are polar if there is one or more lone pairs of electrons on M. NH3 (M = N, X = H, n = 3) is an example. There are two molecular structures with lone pairs that are exceptions to this rule. What are they?
Is the Cl2BBCl2 molecule polar or nonpolar?
There are three possible structures for PCl2F3 with phosphorus as the central atom. Draw them and discuss how measurements of dipole moments could help distinguish among them.
Use the simulation (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16MolecPolarity) to perform the following exercises for a real molecule. You may need to rotate the molecules in three dimensions to see certain dipoles.(a) Sketch the bond dipoles and molecular dipole (if any) for O3. Explain your observations.
Use the simulation (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16MolecPolarity) to perform the following exercises for a real molecule. You may need to rotate the molecules in three dimensions to see certain dipoles.(c) Predict whether there should be a molecular dipole for NH3 and, if so, in which direction it will point. Check the molecular dipole box to test your hypothesis.
State whether each is polar or nonpolar.a. BeF2 b. SF6 c. FCN 
Which of the following molecules is polar?a. BF3b. CCI4c. CO2d. NO2e. SF6
Which of the molecules have net dipole moments (are polar)?a. SeO3b. SeO2c. PCl3d. SCl2e. SiF4
Which of the molecules have net dipole moments (are polar)?a. XeCl2b. ICl3c. TeF4d. PCl5e. ICl5 f. XeCl4 g. SeCl6
Identify the following bonds as polar or nonpolarO-H, C-F, N-C, I-Br, C-C
Classify these molecules as polar or nonpolar. 
Which of these molecules are polar? Check all that apply
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution. a. Nal and C6H14 b. KCI and Hg c. NH3 and CH3OH d. F2 and PF3 e. C3H8 and C2H5OH
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution. LiBr and C5H12 C6H14 and C10H20 I2 and CH3OH N2O4 and NH4Cl None of the pairs above will form a homogeneous solution.