Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Sections
Molecular Polarity
Intermolecular Forces
Phase Diagram
Heating and Cooling Curves
Unit Cell
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
Additional Practice
Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties
Bragg Equation and Electron Diffraction
Atomic, Ionic, and Molecular Solids

Dipole moments or polarity happen in molecules when there is an unequal sharing of electrons. 

Molecular Polarity

Both a molecule's shape and bond polarity can affect its overall polarity. 

Concept #1: Understanding Molecular Polarity 

When the central element has no lone pairs and has the same surrounding elements then usually the molecule is nonpolar. 

Practice: Determine if carbon dioxide, CO2, is polar or nonpolar.

When the central element has lone pairs then we must use element dipole arrows and lone pair dipole arrows to determine polarity. 

Practice: Determine if xenon tetrafluoride is polar or nonpolar.

Concept #2: Some molecular shapes are seen as perfect and will always lead to a non-polar molecule overall. 

Example #1: Determine if silicon tetrachloride, SiCl4, is polar or nonpolar. 

Example #2: Determine if phosphorus trihydride, PH3, is polar or nonpolar. 

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. SiBr42-

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. H2S

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. PCl2F3

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. IF2-