Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Intermolecular Forces are the attractive forces between 2 molecules. Intramolecular Forces are the bonding forces within a molecule. 

Intermolecular vs. Intramolecular Forces

Concept #1: Understanding the difference between intermolecular and intramolecular forces 

Intermolecular forces influence the physical properties of compounds, whereas intramolecular forces influence the chemical properties of compounds. 

Concept #2: The First and Strongest Intermolecular Force

This intermolecular force deals with the attraction between an ion and a polar compound

Concept #3: The Second Intermolecular Force

This intermolecular forces exists anytime hydrogen is directly connected to fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen

Concept #4: The Third Intermolecular Force

Concept #5: The Fourth Intermolecular Force

This intermolecular force deals with the attraction between a polar and nonpolar covalent compound

Concept #6: The Fifth Intermolecular Force

This intermolecular force is found in all compounds, but it's the main intermolecular force of nonpolar covalent compounds

Example #1: Based on the given compounds, answer each of the following questions:

CH3CH3,       KBr,        C6H5OH,           CaS,             Ne

a. Which compound will have the lowest boiling point?

 

b. Which compound will have the highest surface tension.

 

c. Which compound will have the highest vapor pressure. 

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in C6H5NH2 is:

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in HBr is:

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in ZnBr2 with H2O is:

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in Ne with H2O is:

Solubility & Intermolecular Forces

Solubility deals with the dissolving of a solute in a solvent in order to create a solution

Concept #7: Understanding the Theory of "Likes" dissolve "Likes"

In order for a solvent to dissolve a solute both components have similar polarities. 

Example #2: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

CCl4 and P4

Example #3: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

CH3OH and C6H6

Example #4: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

C6H5CH2NH2 and HF

Example #5: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

IF4­ -   and NH3

Practice: Which of the following statements is/are true?

a) Methane will dissolve completely in acetone, CH3COCH3.

b) Hydrofluoric acid (HF) will form a heterogeneous mixture with tetrachloride, CCl4.

c) Pentane will form a homogeneous mixture with CBr4.

d) Methanethiol (CH3SH) is miscible in fluoromethane (CH3F).

Additional Problems
At room temperature, nitrogen (N 2) and oxygen (O2) are both gases, but both will condense if the temperature is lowered enough. N2 condenses at 77K, and O2 condenses at 90K. Which of these molecules experiences weaker intermolecular forces? ___________
Determine the strongest intermolecular force present in each element of compound.  a. HCl b. Br2 c. PH3 d. NH3 
What is the strongest evidence for hydrogen bonding? 1. The boiling points of NH3, H2O, and HF are abnormally high compared with the rest of the hydrides in their respective periods. 2. Hydrogen is able to accept or donate electrons, so it is the most versatile atom in the periodic chart. 3. Hydrogen has an extremely low electronegativity. 4. Hydrogen can be considered either a metal or nonmetal.
The dominant forces between molecules (intermolecular forces) are ____ in origin. 1. electrostatic 2. electrodynamic 3. electromagnetic 4. gravitational 5. magnetic
True or false: Xe is more polarizable than Ne. _________
Which of the following characteristics indicates the presence of  weak  intermolecular forces in a liquid? a) a high critical temperature  b) a low heat of vaporization c) a high boiling point d) a low vapor pressure e) None of the above
Dispersion (London) forces result from 1. distortion of the electron cloud of an atom or molecule by the presence of nearby atoms or molecules. 2. the formation of a loose covalent linkage between a hydrogen atom connected to a very electronegative atom in one molecule and another very electronegative atom in a neighboring molecule. 3. the balance of attractive and repulsive forces between two polar molecules. 4. attraction between molecules in a liquid and molecules or atoms in a solid surface with which the liquid is in contact. 5. attractive forces between a molecule at the surface of a liquid and those beneath it which are not balanced by corresponding forces from above.
In which of these compounds would you find ONLY dispersion forces existing between the molecules? I. CCl4; II. NH3; III. CO2; IV. HBr. 1. II and III only 2. I and III only  3. III and IV only 4. I and IV only 5. II only 6. III only 7. IV only 8. I and II only 9. II and IV only 10. I only
Soap has an ionic and a polar end. It works well to remove oil by A) surrounding the oil with the nonpolar end, and the water interacts with the polar end. B) surrounding the oil with the polar end, and the water interacts with the nonpolar end. C) surrounding the oil and water with the nonpolar end. D) surrounding the oil and water with the polar end.
Which one of the following substances will have both dispersion forces and dipole-dipole forces?             A)  Br2    B)  BCl3    C)  HCl    D)  H 2    E)  CO2
Which one of the following substances should exhibit hydrogen bonding in the liquid state?             A)  PH3    B)  He    C)  H2S    D)  CH4    E)  CH3OH
Which figure best describes the hydrogen bonding between two water molecules?
Identify the dominant intermolecular force in the following species, respectively: RbCl, C6H6 (benzene), HI, Fe2O3, CH2NH. a) ionic forces b) hydrogen bonding c) dipole-dipole d) instantaneous dipoles A. c, b, d, c, c B. a, c, c, d, c C. a, b, c, b, a D. a, d, c, a, b E. a, b, d, a, c F. b, d, c, d, d G. c, d, a, a, b
Acetic acid (CH3COOH) forms a molecular solid. What type of forces hold it in a solid configuration? I) London forces II) dipole-dipole III) hydrogen bonding A. II only B. I, II, and III C. II and III only D. I only E. I and II only F. II only
Which type of solid is held together only by hydrogen bonds? A. molecular crystal B. ionic crystal C. network crystal D. metallic crystal E. several of the above
"Sparkling water" is made by dissolving large amounts of carbon dioxide gas in ordinary water. What are the strongest types of intermolecular bonds between the carbon dioxide molecules and the water molecules in this mixture? a) London forces b) dipole-dipole forces c) ion-dipole forces d) dipole-induced dipole forces e) ion-ion forces
Which intermolecular force predominates in the condensation of water? a. H-bonding  b. Van der Waals c. London d. Ion-Ion e. Dipole-ion
What are the major attractive forces in an aliquot of pure carbon tetrachloride CCl 4? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
What are the major attractive forces between molecules in the “solution” in an average soda can which contains primarily water and dissolved carbon dioxide? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
The major forces holding water molecules together in the liquid state are referred to as hydrogen bonds. These are really what kind of attractive forces? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
A solution of hydrochloric acid in water is often used to clean dirty toilets. What are the strongest intermolecular forces in this solution? a) ion-ion b) induced dipole-induced dipole c) dipole-induced dipole d) dipole-dipole e ion-dipole
Water and ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH, the kind people drink) mix completely with one another. What are the strongest intermolecular forces that are responsible for attracting these molecules to each other in this solution? a) ion-ion b) induced dipole-induced dipole c) dipole-induced dipole d)  dipole-dipole e) ion-dipole
London forces would be the strongest type of interaction between which of the following molecules in the gas phase? a) NaCl b) H2O c) CaCl2 d) O2 e) HCl
In which of the following compounds will the molecules not form hydrogen bonds with each other?  
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces (nonbonding forces) exist between molecules and influence the physical properties of the substance. The 5 most common intermolecular forces are: 1)  Ion-Dipole is the intermolecular force that exists between an ion and a polar compound. (Strongest) Ex:   NaCl dissolved in H2O   2)  Hydrogen Bonding is the intermolecular force that exists when hydrogen is directly connected F, O, N. (2nd Strongest) Ex:   NH3                                  H2O                  HF   3)  Dipole-Dipole is the intermolecular force that exists with polar covalent compounds. (3rd Strongest) Ex: CHCl3               HCl                   HBr                  HI   4) Dipole/Induced-Dipole is the intermolecular force that exists when a nonpolar covalent compound interacts with a polar covalent compound. (4th Strongest) Ex:       S8 (nonpolar solute) in  H2O (polar solvent)     5)  London Dispersion or Van der Waals Forces is the intermolecular force that exists with nonpolar covalent compounds. (Weakest)    
Which of the following has the strongest intermolecular forces? 1. F2 2. Ne 3. BrF 4. CO2
The strongest intermolecular forces between hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) molecules arise from  1. dipole-dipole forces 2. dispersion forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. ion-dipole interactions 5. disulfide linkages
The strongest intermolecular forces between LiF particles are 1. dipole-dipole forces 2. dispersion forces 3. hydrogen bonding  4. ion-dipole interactions
Which of the following exhibits hydrogen bonding? 1. H3COCH3 2. CH3NH2 3. CH3SH 4. CH3Cl 5. HCl  
Which of the following compounds could not participate in hydrogen-bonding? a) H2O b) CH3NH2 c) CH3OH d) CH3Cl e) NH3
Which of the following can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the pure liquid? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. 3 only D. 2 and 3 only E. 1 and 2 only
Place the following compounds in order of  increasing strength of intermolecular forces. CO2      F2      NH 2CH3   A) F2  < NH 2CH 3 <  CO2 B) NH 2CH3  <  F2 <  CO2 C) CO2  < NH2CH3 <  F2 D) F2  <  CO2 <  NH2CH3 E) NH2CH3  <  CO2 <  F2
Give the major intermolecular force in seawater. A) dipole-dipole B) dispersion (London dispersion) C) hydrogen bonding D) ion-ion E) ion-dipole
Choose the molecule or compound that exhibits dispersion forces as its strongest intermolecular force.  A) CO B) Cl2 C) HF D) NaCl E) All of these have intermolecular forces stronger than dispersion. 
Identify the principal intermolecular forces that exist between molecules in each of the following species: a. C6H6   b. CH3Cl   d. CS2   e. CH3OH   f.  PF3    
 Define hydrogen bonding and indicate the hydrogen bonding interactions in water. 
Compared to CH4, NH3 has: A.  stronger intermolecular forces, higher vapor pressure and higher boiling point. B.  weaker intermolecular forces, higher vapor pressure and higher boiling point. C.  stronger intermolecular forces, lower vapor pressure and lower boiling point. D.  weaker intermolecular forces, lower vapor pressure and higher boiling point. E.  stronger intermolecular forces, lower vapor pressure and higher boiling point.
On a relative basis, the weaker the intermolecular forces in a substance: a) the greater its heat of vaporization b) the more it deviates from ideal gas behavior. c) the greater is its vapor pressure at a particular temperature d) the higher is its melting point e) none of these
As intermolecular forces get weaker, boiling point ____________, volatility ___________, surface tension ___________, vapor pressure ______________.   A. Increases, Decreases, Increases, Decreases B. Increases, Increases, Decreases, Decreases C. Decreases, Increases, Decreases, Increases D. Decreases, Decreases, Increases, Increases
List the following compounds in order of increasing strength of intermolecular forces. Cl2         F 2          NH2CH2CH3 A. NH2CH2CH3 < Cl2 < F2 B. F2 < NH2CH2CH3 < Cl2 C. NH2CH2CH3 < F2 < Cl2 D. F2 < Cl2 < NH2CH2CH3 E. Cl2 < F2 < NH2CH2CH3
What are the major attractive forces in an aliquot of pure carbon tetrachloride CCl 4? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
Which one of the following substances will have hydrogen bonding as one of its intermolecular forces?
What types of intermolecular forces exist between HI and H 2S? A) dispersion forces and dipole-dipole B) dipole-dipole and ion-dipole  C) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole  D) dispersion forces, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole  E) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole
Which is expected to have the largest dispersion forces?  A) C3H8 B) C12H26 C) F2 D) BeCl2
Methane (CH4) forms a molecular solid. What type of forces hold it in a solid configuration? I) London forces II) dipole-dipole forces III) hydrogen bonding 1. I only 2. II only 3. I, II, and III 4. I and II only 5. II and III only 6. III only
Volatile liquids are described by all of the following except:   a. Volatile liquids are easily vaporized. b. Volatile liquids have relatively high vapor pressures. c. Volatile liquids have strong cohesive forces. d. Volatile liquids have weak intermolecular forces. e. All of these describe volatile liquids.
In general, intramolecular forces determine the __________ properties of a substance and intermolecular forces determine its __________ properties. A. chemical, physical       B. physical, chemical       C. solution, intrinsic     D. pressure, viscosity
What types of intermolecular forces exist between PH 3 and CO? A. hydrogen bonding       B. dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding       C. dispersion forces D. dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding        E. dispersion forces and dipole-dipole
Liquid hydrogen is used as one part of the booster fuel in the space shuttle. What type of forces exist between hydrogen molecules in liquid hydrogen? 1. a mixture of all these forces 2. dispersion forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. dipole forces
The DOMINANT intermolecular force that causes gaseous HCl molecules to attract one another is 1. dipole-dipole 2. covalent 3. None of these is dominant. 4. Ionic 5. van der Waals
Which of the following can be expected to exhibit the strongest hydrogen bonding in the liquid state? 1. CH4 2. CH3COCH3 3. CH3OCH3 4. CH3OH 5. CH3CH3
What types of intermolecular interactions does ammonia (NH 3) exhibit? I) dispersion forces II) dipole-dipole interaction III) hydrogen bonding IV) covalent bonding 1. I and II only 2. I, II, and III only 3. II and III only 4. II and IV only 5. I only 6. II only
Which option contains substances that can exhibit only London dispersion forces, and no other intermolecular forces? A) SF6        CH 4         Ne B) H2O       CH 4         Ne C) SF6        CH 4         NaCl D) NaCl       H2O        CH 4 E) BaSO4    Ne          CH 4
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in the following solution? CH3OCH3(g) in H2O(l) a) ion-dipole b) H bond c) dipole-dipole d) ion-induced dipole e) dipole-induced dipole f) dispersion
Which of the following intermolecular forces of attraction is the strongest? a. hydrogen bonding b. dipole-dipole forces c. dispersion forces d. London forces e. dipole-induced dipole forces
List all the intermolecular forces present in pure acetone.
Why is I2 a solid while Cl2 is a gas even though they are both halogens?1. I2 is more polarizable than Cl2.2. I2 has a smaller dipole than Cl2.3. I2 is less polarizable than Cl2.4. I2 has a larger dipole than Cl2.5. I2 has H-bonding and Cl2 does not.
Which of the following exhibit only London (dispersion) forces?a) Heb) H2Oc) Cl2d) HCl
Identify the predominant type of intermolecular force in each of the following compounds. Drag each item to the appropriate bin.
Generally if a liquid has stronger intermolecular attractions it will haveA. a higher viscosity;B. a higher vapor pressure;C. a higher boiling point.1. A and C only2. A only3. A, B, and C4. A and B only5. B only6. B and C only7. C only8. None of the properties
What are all of the intermolecular forces that are responsible for the existence of dry ice (solid CO2)?1. hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole2. London forces 3. dipole-dipole, London forces, and hydrogen bonding4. dipole-dipole and ion-ion5. dipole-dipole and London forces
Which of the following molecules can form hydrogen bonds? Select one.a. NH3b. CH4c. NaHd. BH3e. HI
Rank the following types of intermolecular forces in general order of decreasing strength (strongest to weakest). London dispersion, ion-dipole, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole
For each of the following pairs of molecules, identify the dominate intermolecular force, and answer the associated question.a. NH2CH2CH2CH3            N(CH 3)3____________________   ____________________Which of the above compounds is expected to have the highest viscosity? b. CsF                                 ClF____________________   ____________________Which of the above compounds is expected to have the highest vapor pressure? c. CO2                                SO   2____________________  ____________________Which of the above compounds is expected to have the highest boiling point? When we looked at the series of compounds: H 2O, H2S, H2Se, H2Te, boiling point increased from H2S to H2Se to H2Te, but H2O had the highest boiling point of the four. Explain the trend and why H2O is an exception.   If, however, you look at the trend for the compounds: (H 3C)2O, (H3C)2S, (H3C)2Se, (H3C)2Te, then boiling point increases as you go down the periodic table and (H3C)2O is not an exception. Explain.
Which of the following substances would you predict to have the highest ΔH vap?a. N2b. C6H6c. SiF4d. Br2e. Xe
Select the major force between the molecules in pure, liquid acetone.A. ion-ionB. ion-dipoleC. hydrogen bondingD. dipole-dipoleE. dispersion 
Choose the molecule that exhibits London (dispersion) forces as its strongest intermolecular force.a. Cl2b. COc. HFd. NaCle. All of these have intermolecular forces stronger than dispersion
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force present in NH 2CH3?a. dispersionb. dipole-dipolec. hydrogen bondingd. ion-dipolee. none of the above
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force present in CHF 3?a. dispersionb. dipole-dipolec. hydrogen bondingd. ion-dipolee. none of the above
Identify the kinds of intermolecular forces that might arise between molecules of CH3OH. 1. None of these 2. dispersion forces, dipole-dipole 3. dipole-dipole 4. dispersion forces 5. hydrogen bonding 6. dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding
 Which of the following statements is not true for these compounds? SF 4 (MW 108),  CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH (MW 102) SiF4 (MW 104) are sulfur tetrafluoride, pentanoic acid and silicon tetrafluoride respectively. a) SF 4 has London forces and dipole-dipole forces.b) Hydrogen bonding occurs between neighboring pentanoic acid molecules.c) Sulfur tetrafluoride has the strongest total intermolecular forces.d) Pentanoic acid has the largest heat of vaporization.e) At a temperature where all the compounds exist as a liquid, silicon tetrafluoride has the highest vapor pressure.
Sort the following events by the dominant type of force overcome or formed.i. the rubber in tire is covalently crosslinked through vulcanizationii. H2 and O2 as combined in a fuel cell to form wateriii. ice meltsiv. sugar dissoves in waterv. water moves up a narrow tube due to capillary action
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces (from below) that are present in the compound H2S. a) dispersion forces b) dipole–dipole forces c) dispersion forces and dipole–dipole forces d) hydrogen bonding
For each solute, identify the better solvent: water or carbon tetrachloride. C6H6, I2, Na2S, CH3OH
Fill in the blank for the questions given below.  Boiling Point increases with __________ intermolecular forces. Vapor pressure __________ with weaker intermolecular forces. For an exothermic reaction the higher the temperature the ________ molecules are dissolved in water.  
Give the major force between ethanol and waterA. dipole–dipoleB. dispersionC. hydrogen–bondingD. ion–dipoleE. ion–ion
Which of the following compounds exhibits hydrogen bonding? A) CH3CH2NH2 B) C6H5OC6H5 C) CH3I D) H2S
It is common to add Epson salts to bath water when one has been over exercising and has sore muscles. What is the primary intermolecular force that exists between magnesium sulfate, the primary in Epson salts, and the water in the bathtub?a) dipole-dipole forcesb) ion-dipole forcesc) London forcesd) ion-ion forcese) dipole-induced dipole forces
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that is/are present in Kr. a) dispersion forces b) dipole-dopole forces   c) hydrogen bonding   d) dispersion forces & dipole-dipole forces
Which of the following molecules can form hydrogen bonds with other molecules of the same kind?a. CH3Fb. CH3NH2c. H2Od. HIe. CH3-O-CH3f. CHCl3g. HCOOH 
What is the strongest intermolecular force present in SO2 ? (EN Values: S = 2.5; O = 3.5)A) Dispersion forces (London dispersion)B) Dipole-Dipole forceC) Hydrogen-BondD) Ion-Dipole forceE) Covalent Bond
Identify which of the following are correct conditions for forming a hydrogen bond: a) A hydrogen bond is equivalent to a covalent bond. b) The CH4 molecule exhibits hydrogen bonding. c) A hydrogen bond is possible with only certain hydrogen-containing compounds. d) Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to an N, O or F atom. e) A hydrogen atom acquires a partial positive charge when it is covalently bonded to an F atom.
Intermolecular forces are:             A.  between molecules and weaker than a chemical bond.             B.  between two atoms within a molecule and weaker than a chemical bond.             C.  between molecules and stronger than a chemical bond.             D. between two atoms within a molecule and stronger than a chemical bond.             E. between electrons within an atom and stronger than a chemical bond.
What is the intermolecular force that exists between a calcium ion and water? a. ion-dipole b. Covalent bonding c. London dispersion forces d. ion-ion e. dipole-dipole forces
Which of the following molecules will show only intermolecular dispersion force?
Ammonia's unusually high melting point is the result ofa. dipole-dipole forces.b. London dispersion forces.c. hydrogen bonding.d. covalent bonding.e. ionic bonding.
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that is/are present in the following compound. CH3OHa) dispersion forcesb) dipole-dipole forcesc) hydrogen bondingd) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding
Sort the following events by the dominant type of force overcome or formed:
Which concept describes the formation of four equivalent, single, covalent bonds by carbon in its compounds that resemble methane, CH4?a) hydrogen bondingb) hybridizationc) sigma bondingd) coordinate covalent bonding
If a substance has weak molecular forces, it has a ______ boiling point, a _______heat of vaporization and a __________vapor pressure.a) low, large, lowb) high, large, highc) low, small, highd) high, small, lowe) high, large, low
Which of the following has the highest boiling point?a. H2b. HFc. NH3d. Na2e. Na2S
Which of the following is correct?a) The energy of dipole-dipole interactions is about 2 kJ • mol -1.b) The energy of ion-dipole interactions is about 2 kJ • mol -1.c) The energy of London forces is about 2 kJ • mol -1.d) The energy of a hydrogen bond is about 2 kJ • mol -1.e) The energy of ion-ion interactions is about 2 kJ • mol -1.
Choose the molecule or compound that exhibits dispersion forces as its strongest intermolecular force.A) O2B) COC) HFD) NaClE) All of these have intermolecular forces stronger than dispersion.
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound:N2, NH3, CO, CCl4, HCl, H2O
The predominant intermolecular force in BF3 is:  London Dispersion Hydrogen Bonding Ion-Dipole Dipole-Dipole Dipole-induced Dipole
Classify each property as associated with a liquid that has strong or weak intermolecular forces.high viscosity, low boiling point, low viscosity, high boiling point, high surface tension, low surface tension, low vapor pressure, high vapor pressure
Which of the following substances have polar interactions (dipole-dipole forces) between molecules?a) F2b) Cl2c) ClFd) NF3
Below are various rankings of intermolecular forces, which option correctly ranks the given forces from weakest to strongest? a) dipole-dipole < ion-dipole < ion-induced dipole b) dispersion < ion-induced dipole < dipole-induced dipole c) dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding < dipole-induced dipole d) ion-induced dipole < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding e) dipole-induced dipole < hydrogen bonding < ion-induced dipole
Which of the responses includes all of the following that can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules?(A) Na+      (B) CH 3COOH     (C) C2H6     (D) CH 3NH21) (A) and (B)2) (A) and (C)3) (B) and (C)4) (B) and (D)5) (C) and (D)
Why is water an extraordinary substance?A) Water has a low molar mass, yet it is a liquid at room temperature.B) Water is the main solvent within living organisms.C) Water has an exceptionally high specific heat capacity.D) Water has strong hydrogen bonding.E) All of the above.
Which has the smallest dipole-dipole forces?A) CH3ClB) HBrC) O2D) NO
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that are present in the following element or compound: SiH4a) Dispersion forcesb) Dipole-dipole forcesc) Hydrogen bonding
What intermolecular forces are present in each of the substances?a. CH4b. C3H8c. CH3Fd. HFe. C6H5OH 
Which of the following decreases as the strength of the attractive forces increases?a. the heat of vaporizationb. the vapor pressure of a liquidc. the extent of deviations from the ideal gas lawd. the sublimation temperature of a solide. the normal boiling point
Place the following compounds in order of decreasing strength of intermolecular forces.HF        H2       CO 2A) HF > CO2 > H2B) HF > H2 > CO2C) H2 > CO2 > HD) CO2 > HF > H 2E) CO2 > H2 > HF
Which of the following substances would you predict to have the highest ΔHvap? A) CH3ClB) HClC) CH3COCH3D) CH3CH2OHE) CH3CH2CH2CH3
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances: HCl, He, CO, HF Match these to the correct groups below. 1. Hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole and dispersion 2. Dipole-dipole and dispersion only 3. Dispersion only
Circle the molecule or solution with the…1. greatest vapor pressure.          F2    Cl2    Br2    I22. greatest boiling point.        CH3OCH2CH 2CH3CH 3OCH 2OCH3 HOCH2CH2CH2CH3HOCH2CH2CH2OH                                            3. greatest solubility in water.CH3CH2CH3 CH2OCH2CH3CH2OH         4. lowest freezing point.0.1 M Na 2SO 4(aq)0.1 M NaClO 4(aq)           0.1 M glucose(aq)5. greatest vapor pressure of water above the solution.    0.2 M Na2SO 4(aq)0.4 M NaClO4(aq)    0.5 M glucose(aq) 
Which of the following exhibit only london (dispersion) forces?He, HCl, H2O, Cl2
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances. NH3, CO, CO2, CH3Cl
Which interactions and processes contribute to the dissolution of ionic compounds in water? Check all that apply. A) Hydration B) Affinity of oxygen towards cations C) Ion–dipole interactions D) Hydrogen bonding E) Affinity of hydrogen towards anions F) Dipole–dipole interactions
What is the strongest intermolecular force in SO 2? a) dipole-dipole b) london dispersion c) ionic d) hydrogen bonding
What happens to these physical properties as the strength of intermolecular forces increases? 
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances. HF, CO, H2, and HCl.
A liquid in a test tube has a curved surface such that the edges touching the glass are higher than the surface at the center. This must mean that the cohesive forces are less than the adhesive forces.   1. False 2. True 
Choose the molecule or compound that exhibits dipole-dipole forces as its strongest intermolecular force.a. NH3b. CF4c. SO2d. BCl3e. H2
Which of the following molecules can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds as a pure liquid? a. I, II, and III b. II and IV c. I and III d. All molecules form hydrogen bond interactions e. None of the molecules form hydrogen bond interactions
Which of the following four substances is expected to have the highest contact angle to glass (beads up on glass into almost a ball) but have a concave meniscus in a glass test tube? A. toluene, C6H5CH3B. hydrazine, H2NNH2C. hydrogen peroxide, HOOHD. water, H2OE. none
For each of the following compounds, identify the strongest intermolecular force. In each of the compounds, carbon is the central atom.CH4      __________________CH3F    __________________CH3OH __________________ Which compound would you expect to have the highest...a. boiling point?                       ______________b. molar heat of vaporization? ______________c. viscosity?                             ______________d. vapor pressure?                   ______________   
In the molecule below, how many atoms could make hydrogen bonds with water? a. 5 b. 7 c. 9 d. 10 e. 12
Arrange the non-covalent interactions in order of strength.ion-ion interactionsdipole-dipole interactionsdispersion forceshydrogen bonding
Consider the formation of the three solutions shown in the table.a. Rank the solutions A, B, and C from the most exothermic to the most endothermic.b. Rank the enthalpy of solution from most exothermic to most endothermic. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.
Which type(s) of bonding is (are) found within hydrocarbon molecules? a. Hydrogen Bonding b. Covalent Bonding c. Van der Waals d. Metallic e. Ionic
What is/are the strongest intermolecular force(s) in methanol?a. H-bondingb. dipole-dipolec. dispersion
Rank these compounds by their expected solubility in hexane, C6H14.
Rank these compounds by their expected solubility in hexane C6H14. C2H5OH, H2O, C2H6
What is/are the strongest intermolecular force(s) in 2-propanol?a. H-bondingb. dipole-dipolec. dispersion
What is/are the strongest intermolecular force(s) in water?a. H-bondingb. dipole-dipolec. dispersion
What is/are the strongest intermolecular force(s) in hexane?a. H-bondingb. dipole-dipolec. dispersion
Which of the following will be the most soluble in water?a. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OH b. CH3CH2CH2OHc. CH3CH2CH2CH2OHd.  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
Spontaneous dissolving under standard-state conditions at 25oC occurs with a mix of: a. KNO3 & n-butanol b. I2 & CH2Cl2 c. CaCO3 & hexane d. acetone & KNO3  
Water and toluene are not miscible. Which of the following is most likely the formula of toluene?a. C6H5CH3b. C6H12O6c. CH3OHd. CH3COOH
Identify which of the following molecules can exhibit hydrogen bonding as a pure liquid.
What is/are the strongest intermolecular force(s) in acetone?a. H-bondingb. dipole-dipolec. dispersion
Which of the following statements describe hydrogen bonding between water molecules or describe properties of water that lead to hydrogen bonding between water molecules?a. The slightly negative oxygen atom of one water molecule is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen atom of another water molecule.b. The slightly positive hydrogen atom is attracted to the slightly negative oxygen atom within a single water molecule.c. Water is polar due to its bent structure and an unequal sharing of electrons.d. Water is nonpolar due to its linear structure and unequal sharing of electrons.
Spontaneous dissolving under standard-state conditions at 25oC occurs with a mix of a. CH2Cl2 & H2O b. KNO3 & CH2Cl2 c. acetone & H2O d. CH2Cl2 & NaCl
Select the single best answer. What is the strongest interparticle force in a sample of SO 2? (A) ionic bonding forces (B) dipole-dipole forces (C) dispersion forces (D) ion-induced dipole forces (E) dipole-induced dipole forces (F) hydrogen bonding forces (G) ion-dipole forces
Decide which intermolecular forces act between the molecules of each compound in the table below.
What kind of intermolecular forces act between a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule and a dichloroethylene (CH2CCl2) molecule? 
Which of the following molecules can hydrogen bond? 
Which diagram CORRECTLY represent a hydrogen bond? 
What type of interaction occurs between atoms in a nonbonding atomic solid.a. covalent bondingb. weak dispersion forcesc. polar bondingd. ionic bonding  
Organic compounds are always polar and dissolve in water a. True b. False
Which of the following substances has the highest boiling point?He I2 O2 H O2 He I2 H
The strongest interaction between C3H8 and CH3OH isa. dispersion forces b. dipole-dipole forcesc. dipole-induced dipole forcesd. hydrogen bonds 
Select the single best answer. What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in Cu(s) in Ag(s)? (a) dipole-dipole (b) metallic bonding (c) hydrogen bonding (d) dipole-induced dipole
Select the molecule with the strongest dispersion force with itself.a. N2b. O2c. Br2d. F2 
For each pair below, which of the two has the higher boiling point and state your reason why? (a) helium or argon? (b) ethanol or acetone?(c) pentane or heptane?
Which molecule or molecules can form hydrogen bonds with water? Select all that apply.
What intermolecular force(s) is/are present in solid SO 3 ?1. London dispersion2. dipole-dipole3. hydrogen bondinga. 1 onlyb. 2 onlyc. 3 onlyd. 1 and 2e. 1 and 3 
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances.NH3COCO2CH3Cl
What happens to these physical properties as the strength of intermolecular forces increases?
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point (1 = lowest, 4 = highest) RbF CH3Cl CH3OH CO2
What kind of forces must be overcome in order to vaporize the liquid, CCI4? Select all that apply. (a) dispersion forces (b) dipole-dipole forces (c) hydrogen bonds
Arrange these compounds by their expected bolling point.
What kind of nonbonding interaction occurs in liquids of the molecule CH3Br? (i) hydrogen bond(ii) permanent dipole (iii) induced dipole  
What kind of nonbonding interaction occurs in liquids of the molecule CH4? (i) induced dipole (ii) permanent dipole (iii) hydrogen bond 
What kind(s) of intermolecular forces must be overcome during the following phase changes? Solid CO2 sublimes A. Dispersion forces B. Dipole-dipole interactions C. Hydrogen bonding
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force present in NH2CH3? hydrogen bonding dipole-dipole ion-dipole dispersion None of the above
Rank these compounds by their expected solubility in hexane, C6H14.
Match the following properties of liquids to what they indicate about the relative strength of the intermolecular forces in that liquid.
Identify which of the following molecules can exhibit hydrogen bonding as a pure liquid.
Part BState the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in isopentyl alcohol (polar, contains an OH group). Check all that apply.(i) dipole-dipole (ii) dispersion (iii) hydrogen bonding (iv) ion-dipole
What kind of nonbonding interaction occurs in liquids of the molecule NH3?(i) hydrogen bond(ii) permanent dipole(iii) induced dipole
Table salt and sugar dissolve in water for different reasons. Select the two forces responsible. (a) ion-dipole forces (b) London forces (c) electrostatic forces (d) dipole-dipole forces (e) hydrogen bonding
Which of the following substances have polar interactions (dipole-dipole forces) between molecules? F2, Cl2, ClF, NF3
Which substance has the lowest vapor pressure at room temperature?a. HFb. HClc. HBrd. Hle. H2 
What kind(s) of intermolecular forces must be overcome during the following phase changes? CHCl3 boilsA. Dispersion forces B. Dipole-dipole interactions C. Hydrogen bonding
Rank these compounds by their expected solubility in Hexane C 6H14. Rank from most soluble to lease soluble.i) C3H8ii) CH3OHiii) H2O
What kind(s) of intermolecular forces must be overcome during the following phase changes? Ice meltsA. Dispersion forces B. Dipole-dipole interactions C. Hydrogen bonding