Solution Chemistry involves combining the concepts of molarity and stoichiometry.
Concept: Under solution chemistry our given information may be in units of mass, volume or molarity.1m
Stoichiometry is used when given the known quantity of one compound and asked to find the unknown quantity of another compound or element. Now we throw molarity into the mix.
Concept: When dealing with solution chemistry we use a new adjusted stoichiometric chart.3m
We already looked at a stoichiometric chart, this one is a new stoichiometric chart and we use this anytime we're doing stoichiometry and molarity is involved. So just like before, we're going to say that entities means atoms, molecules or particles. Just like before, we're going to be given information, so we're going to have given information. That given information will help us find unknown information.
In this case, because we're dealing with molarity, that's going to introduce a new unknown - volume. Here when we say volume, volume could be milliliters, it could be liters, it could even be microliters. The base, of course, will be liters.
Now, how do we go from volume of given to moles of given? To do that, all you have to remember is liters times molarity will give us these moles. Remember, we say that liters times molarity represents a complete set. So instead of giving us the moles of a compound, they could say we have 25 mL of a certain molarity of a compound. That's the same thing as saying I have that many moles of that same compound.
From this, remember we can go from moles of given to moles of unknown by doing a mole to mole comparison, just like in the last stoichiometric chart. If you know moles of unknown, you can find entities of unknown by using Avogadro's number and you can go to grams of unknown if you know the molecular mass of the compound. Then, how do you go from moles of unknown to volume of unknown? Well, we just say simply, moles times molarity would give me liters.
Again, we're going to say, you use this chart when given a chemical reaction or chemical equation with a known quantity in either milliliters or liters or molarity of a compound or element and asked to find the unknown quantity of another compound or element.
This new Stoichiometric Chart is used anytime we are given the known quantity of a compound in units such as mL, L or M and asked to find the unknown quantity of another compound.
Example: Molarity and Stoichiometry Calculation4m
By using our new Stoichiometric Chart we can now answer stoichiometric questions dealing with molarity.
Using our new Stoichiometric Chart it is possible to now calculate the unknown volume of a compound through molarity.
Problem: How many milliliters of 0.325 M HCl are needed to react with 16.2 g of magnesium metal?
2 HCl (aq) + Mg (s) ----> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)5m
Knowing the volume and molarity of a compound allows us to determine the molarity of an unknown compound.
Problem: What is the molarity of a hydrobromic acid solution if it takes 34.12 mL of HBr to completely neutralize 82.56 mL of 0.156 M Ca(OH)2?
2 HBr (aq) + Ca(OH)2 (aq) ----> CaBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)6m
Problem: Iron (III) can be oxidized by an acidic K2Cr2O7 solution according to the net ionic equation: Cr2O72- + 6 Fe2+ + 14 H+ -----> 2 Cr3+ + 6 Fe3+ + 7 H2O.
If it takes 30.0 mL of 0.100 M K2Cr2O7 to titrate a 25 mL Fe2+ solution, what is the molar concentration of Fe2+?6m
To determine the concentration of SO42- ion in a sample of groundwater, 100.0 mL of the sample is titrated with 0.0250 M Ba(NO3)2, forming insoluble BaSO4. If 4.79 mL of the Ba(NO3)2 solution is required to reach the end point of the titration, what is the (molar) concentration of SO42- in the sample?
Calculate the mass of MgCO3 precipitated by mixing 10.0 mL of a 0.200 M Na2CO3 solution with 5.00 mL of a 0.0500 M Mg(NO3)2 solution.
How many milliliters of a 0.15 M potassium chloride solution should be added to 47.70 mL of a 0.31 M lead(II) nitrate solution to precipitate all of the lead(II) ion?
Given the following equation, how many grams of PbCO3 will dissolve when 1.0 L of 1.00 M H+ is added to 3.00 g of PbCO3?
PbCO3 (s) + 2H+ (aq) → Pb2+ (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (s)
How many grams of Ag 2CO3 will precipitate when excess Na 2CO3 solution is added to 74.0 mL of 0.747 M AgNO3 solution?
2AgNO3 (aq) + Na 2CO3 (aq) → Ag 2CO3 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)
What volume of 0.253 M H 2SO4 is needed to react with 59.2 mL of 0.103 M NaOH? The equation is
H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) → Na 2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l)
Be sure to answer all parts.
Calculate the following quantity: number of Mg 2+ ions in each milliliter of 0.472 M magnesium bromide.
Be sure to answer all parts.
How many total moles of ions are released when the following sample dissolves completely in water? Enter your answer in scientific notation.
Calculate the number of milliliters of 0.434 M KOH required to precipitate all of the Pb2+ ions in 142 mL of 0.438 M Pb(NO 3)2 solution as Pb(OH)2. The equation for the reaction is:
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KOH (aq) → Pb(OH) 2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)
The amount of I3- (aq) in a solution can be determined by titration with a solution containing a known concentration of S2O32- (aq) (thiosulfate ion). The determination is based on the net ionic equation 2S2O32- (aq) + I3-(aq) → S4O62- (aq) + 3I-(aq) Given that it requires 30.4 mL of 0.470 M Na2S2O_3 (aq) to titrate a 25.0-mL sample of I_3^- (aq), calculate the molarity of I3- (aq) in the solution.
If 10.0 g of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is added to 10.0 g of methanol (CH3OH), then which compound by convention would be classified as the solvent?
Write the balanced chemical equation for the following acid and base reaction. (Use the lowest possible whole number coefficients. Include states-of-matter under the given conditions in your answer.)
HC2H3O2 (aq) + Al (OH)3 (aq) →
Using the balanced reaction above, calculate the amount of 0.0024 M Al(OH) 3 that would neutralize 22 mL of 0.0026 M HC2H3O2.
How many moles of salt are produced in the reaction?
What is the molar concentration of the salt after the reaction is complete?
Dietary iron forms a 1: 1 complex with hemoglobin (Hb), which is responsible for O 2 transport in the body based on the following equation:
Hb + 4O2 → Hb (O2)4
How many moles of oxygen could be transported by the hemoglobin complex formed from 9 mg of dietary iron? [Anemia-A Limiting Reagent Problem? p. 172]
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
How many grams of Cu(NO3)2 are required to prepare 18.00 mL of a 0.124 M Cu2+ solution? Please use the Periodic Table to calculate the molar mass using the figures in that specific table.
Zinc reacts with hydrochloric add according to the reaction equation
Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
How many milliliters of 3.00 M HCI (aq) are required to react with 7.65 g of Zn(s)?
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric according to
BaO2 (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → BaSO4 (s)+ H2O2 (aq)
How many milliliters of 2.50 M H2SO4 (aq) are needed to react completely with 63.3 g of BaO2 (s)?
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to
BaO2(s) + H2SO4(aq) → BaSO4(s) + H2O2(aq)
How many milliliters of 3.00 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 77.5 g of BaO2(s)?
For the remaining questions, assume that you start with 0.410 g of copper turnings:
Calculate the initial number of moles of Cu.
Calculate the minimum volume of 16.0 M HNO3 required to dissolve all of the copper (step 1).
If, in practice, 5.0 mL of 16.0 M nitric acid were added to effect the dissolution of the copper (step 1), what would be the minimum volume of 4.00 M NaOH required to neutralize the remaining acid and convert all of the Cu2+(aq) to Cu(OH)2(s) (step 2)?
Calculate the minimum volume of 1.00 M H2SO4 required to dissolve all of the CuO(s) (step 4).
Calculate the minimum mass of zinc required to reduce all of the Cu 2+(aq) to Cu(s) (step 5).
(Note that, in practice, a significant excess of zinc is used due to loss of H 2(g).)
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric add according to
BaO2 (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → BaSO4 (s) + H2O2 (aq)
How many milliliters of 5.00 M H2SO4 (aq) are needed to react completely with 22.9 g of BaO2 (s)?
Green plants use light from the Sun to drive photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction in which water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) chemically react to form the simple sugar glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen gas (O2).
What mass of oxygen gas is produced by the reaction of 8.91 g of water?
Be sure your answer has the correct number of significant digits.
How many mL of 1.30 M HCI solution contains enough HCl to react completely with 0.300 g of zinc metal? The reaction is
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl 2(aq) + H2(g)
The combustion of propane may be described by the chemical equation,
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)
How many grams of O 2(g) are needed to completely burn 33.5 g of C 3H8(g)?
Rescue Breathing Devices Self-contained self-rescue breathing devices, like the one in the figure below, convert CO2 into O2 according to the following (balanced) reaction:
4KO2 (s) + 2CO2 (g) → 2K2CO3 (s) + 3O2 (g)
How many grams of KO2 are needed to produce 985.0 L of O 2 at 20.5°C and 1.00 atm?
Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the reaction equation.
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
How many milliliters if 5.00 M HCl(aq) are required to react with 4.55 g of Zn(s)? http://www.chegg.com/homework-help/questions-and-answers/zinc-reacts-hydrochloric-add-according-reaction-equation-zn-s-2hcl-aq-rightarrow-zncl2-aq--q21864849
How many grams of PbCl2 are formed when 25.0 mL of 0.614 M KCl react with Pb(NO3)2?
2 KCl (aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) →2 KNO3 (aq) + PbCl2(s)
Which of the following would you least expect to find in CaCl 2(aq)?
a. H2O molecules
b. CaCl2 molecules
c. Ca2+ ions
d. Cl- ions
Which of the solutions below have the same molar concentration as Solution X?
What volume of a 0.100 M HCl solution is required to exactly neutralize 25.0 mL of 0.235 M Ba(OH)2?
The balanced equation is 2HCl(aq) + Ba(OH)2 → BaCl2 + 2H2O(l).
a. 235 mL
b. 117.5 mL
c. 58.8 mL
d. 29.4 mL
e. 1.18 x 103 mL
Determine the mass (g) of solute required to form 275 mL of a 0.4230 M KClO 3 solution.
A 0.250 M solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is to be reacted with a solution of sodium hydroxide via a double-displacement reaction to make sodium sulfate and water. 50.0 mL of the H2SO4 solution reacts with 25.0 mL of the NaOH solution. What is the molarity of the NaOH solution?
(A) 0.0625 M
(B) 0.125 M
(C) 0.250 M
(D) 0.500 M
(E) 1.00 M
What mass of FeCl2 is needed to prepare 750.0 mL of 2.00 M solution?
(A) 47.6 g
(B) 95.3 g
(C) 127 g
(D) 190.5 g
(E) 190,500 g
Lead(II) sulfide (PbS) was once used in glazing earthenware. It will also react with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form lead(II) sulfate and water. How many grams of hydrogen peroxide are needed to react completely with 265 g of lead(II) sulfide?
(A) 151 g
(B) 123 g
(C) 37.7 g
(D) 9.41 g
(E) 265 g
Barium hydroxide (used in corrosion inhibitors and lubricants) reacts with chloric acid (HClO3) to form barium chlorate [Ba(ClO3)2] and water. What mass of water is formed when 138 g of barium hydroxide reacts with chloric acid?
(A) 32.5 g
(B) 29.0 g
(C) 16.2 g
(D) 7.31 g
(E) 138 g
A solution of hydrochloric acid is to be neutralized by using a 0.15 M solution of barium hydroxide. 25.0 mL of the HCl solution requires 33.3 mL of the Ba(OH)2 solution. What is the molarity of the HCl solution?
A. 0.40 M
B. 0.11 M
C. 0.15 M
D. 0.20 M
E. 0.22 M
If a solution is supersaturated, then
A) the solute concentration is above the solubility limit, but the system is in equilibrium.
B) the solute concentration is below the solubility limit, and more solute can be dissolved.
C) the solute concentration is above the solubility limit, and the system is not in equilibrium.
D) the solute concentration is at the solubility limit.
E) no precipitate will form.
The SO2 present in air is mainly responsible for the acid rain phenomenon. Its concentration can be determined by titrating against a standard permanganate solution as follows:
5 SO2 + 2 MnO4- + 2 H2O → 5 SO42- + 2 Mn2+ + 4 H+
Calculate the number of grams of SO 2 in a sample of air if 7.37 mL of 0.00800 M KMnO 4 solution are required for the titration.
According to the following balanced reaction, how many moles of Fe(OH) 2 can form from 175.0 mL of 0.227 M LiOH solution? Assume that there is excess FeCl2.
FeCl2(aq) + 2 LiOH(aq) → Fe(OH)2(s) + 2 LiCl(aq)
A) 3.97 × 10−2 moles
B) 2.52 × 10−2 moles
C) 1.99 × 10−2 moles
D) 5.03 × 10−2 moles
E) 6.49 × 10−2 moles
What volume of 0.405 M KOH solution is needed to react completely with 2.15 g of copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4? The products of the chemical reaction are copper (II) hydroxide and potassium sulfate.
When 5.0 grams of Na 2O (MM = 61.98 g/mol) are dissolved in 1.00 L of water, what is the concentration of the Na+ ions?
A. 0.040 M
B. 0.080 M
C. 0.16 M
D. 6.2 M
E. 12 M
What is the molar mass of a 0.350 g sample of a monoprotic acid if it requires 50.0 mL of 0.440 M Ca(OH)2 to completely neutralize it?
a) 5.30 g/mol
b) 7.95 g/mol
c) 31.8 g/mol
d) 47.7 g/mol
Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid, CH 3COOH, dissolved in water. A 5.54 g sample of vinegar was neutralized by 30.10 mL of 0.100 M NaOH. What is the percent by weight of acetic acid in the vinegar?
a) 24.4 %
b) 0.109 %
c) 3.26 %
d) 9.79 %
Blood alcohol (C2H5OH) level can be determined by titrating a sample of blood plasma with an acidic potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, solution. The balanced redox equation is given below:
H+ (aq) + 2 Cr2O72- (aq) + C2H5OH (aq) → 4 Cr3+ (aq) + 2 CO 2 (g) + 11 H2O (l)
If 45.12 mL of 0.04918 M Cr 2O72- solution is required to titrate 25.0 mL of C 2H5OH, what is the molar concentration of C2H5OH?
a. 0.05450 M
b. 0.01362 M
c. 0.17752 M
d. 0.04438 M
Consider the following balanced redox equation:
H2O + 2 MnO4 – + 3 SO32- → 2 MnO2 + 3 SO42- + 2 OH –
a) How many moles of SO32- (MW:80.07 g/mol) are required to completely react with 20.3 mL of a 0.500 M MnO4– (MW: 118.90 g/mol) solution?
a. 0.0152 moles SO32-
b. 0.0067 moles SO32-
c. 0.005075 moles SO32-
d. 0.3045 moles SO32-
b) How many mL of a 1.25 M Na 2SO3 (MW: 126 g/mol) are required to completely react with 2.55 mL of a 3.50 M KMnO4 (MW: 158 g/mol) solution?
c) How many grams of MnO 2 (MW: 86.94 g/mol) are produced when 32.0 mL of 0.615 M MnO 4- (MW: 118.90 g/mol) reacts with excess water and sulfite?
How many moles of AgCl are formed from the reaction of 75.0 mL of a 0.078 M AgC2H3O2 solution with 55.0 mL of 0.109 M MgCl 2 solution?
2 AgC2H3O2 (aq) + MgCl 2 (aq) → 2 AgCl (s) + Mg(C2H3O2)2 (aq)
a. 0.0120 moles AgCl
b. 0.0117 moles AgCl
c. 0.00585 moles AgCl
d. 0.0600 moles AgCl
How many moles of LiI are contained in 258.6 mL of 0.0296 M LiI solution?
A) 8.74 × 10-3 mol
B) 1.31 × 10-3 mol
C) 1.14 × 10-3 mol
D) 3.67 × 10-3 mol
E) 7.65 × 10-3 mol
A solution of ammonia is made by dissolving 35 g NH 3 in 90.0 g of H2O. The density of the solution is 0.898 g/mL. What is the molarity of NH3?
d = Mass / Volume
a) 53 M
b) 0.39 M
c) 23 M
d) 15 M
e) not possible to calculate
Sulfuric acid cannot be stored in an aluminum container because sulfuric acid dissolves aluminum metal. The following equation shows the reaction:
2 Al (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)
Calculate the volume of sulfuric acid that would be required to completely dissolve a 4.643 g block of aluminum if you are given a 0.98 M H2SO4 solution.
A. 175.60 mL
B. 710.66 mL
C. 284.48 mL
D. 263.40 mL
E. 242.33 mL
When 5.0 grams of Na2O (MM = 61.98 g/mol) are dissolved in 1.00 L of water, what is the concentration of the Na + ions?
A. 0.040 M
B. 0.080 M
C. 0.16 M
D. 6.2 M
E. 12 M
What volume of 0.131 M BaCl2 is required to react completely with 42.0 mL of 0.453 M Na2SO4? This is the net ionic equation for the reaction.
Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) → BaSO4(s)
a) 12.1 mL
b) 72.6 mL
c) 145 mL
d) 290 mL
In acidic solution, the dichromate ion, Cr2O72– (aq) will oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+ and form Cr3+. This net ionic equation represents the reaction that takes place during the reaction.
Cr2O72- (aq) + 6 Fe2+ (aq) + 14H+(aq) → 2 Cr3+ (aq) +6Fe3+ (aq) + 7 H2O(l)
What volume of 0.100 M Cr 2O7 2- (aq) is required to oxidize 60.0 mL of 0.250 M Fe 2+(aq)?
a) 25.0 mL
b) 42.0 mL
c) 58.4 mL
d) 175 mL
It requires 23.56 mL of 0.105 M sodium hydroxide to neutralize 15.00 mL of a sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution. Determine the concentration of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution.
The titration of 25.0 mL of an H 2SO4 solution of unknown concentration requires 83.6 mL of 0.12 M LiOH solution. What is the concentration of the H2SO4 solution?
How many mL of 0.200 M H2SO4 (aq) must be added to 25.0 mL of 0.0888 M BaCl2 (aq) to precipitate all the barium as barium sulfate?
a) 22.2 mL
b) 25.0 mL
c) 9.01 mL
d) 5.55 mL
e) 11.1 mL
Calculate the number of moles of iron(III)sulfide that forms when 62.0 mL of 0.135 M iron(III)chloride reacts with 45.0 mL of 0.285 M calcium sulfide.
a) 8.56 x 10−3 mol
b) 4.19 x 10−3 mol
c) 1.25 x 10−2 mol
d) 4.28 x 10−3 mol
e) 8.38 x 10−3 mol
What volume of 0.131 M BaCl 2 is required to react completely with 42.0 mL of 0.453 M Na2SO4? The following is the net ionic equation.
Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → BaSO4(s)
A. 12.1 mL
B. 72.6 mL
C. 145 mL
D. 290 mL
What volume (L) of a 2.50 M SrCl 2 will completely react with 0.150 L of a 1.75 M AgNO3 solution?
SrCl2(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) → 2AgCl(s) + Sr(NO3)2(aq)
A. 0.0525 L
B. 0.210 L
C. 0.0686 L
D. 0.429 L
What is the molar mass of a 0.350 g sample of a monoprotic acid if it requires 50.0 mL of 0.440 M Ca(OH)2 to completely neutralize it?
Iron (III) can be oxidized by an acidic K2Cr2O7 solution according to the net ionic equation below. How many microliters of a 0.250 M FeCl2 are needed to completely react with 8.24 g of a compound containing 31.3% weight K2Cr2O7?
Cr2O7 2- + 6 Fe 2+ + 14 H+ → 2 Cr3+ + 6 Fe 3+ + 7 H2O
In the following redox reaction, dichromate ion, Cr 2O7 2- , oxidizes Fe2+ to yield the following products.
Cr2O7 2- (aq) + 6 Fe 2+ (aq) + 14 H + (aq) → 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2O (l)
If it takes 35.0 mL of 0.250 M FeCl 2 to titrate 100 mL of a solution containing Cr 2O7 2- , what is the molar concentration of Cr2O7 2- ?
a. 0.015 M
b. 0.053 M
c. 0.027 M
d. 0.045 M
What volume of a 0.244 M KCl solution is required to react exactly with 50.0 mL of 0.210 M Pb(NO3)2 solution to the reaction below?
2 KCl (aq) + Pb(NO 3)2 (aq) → PbCl2 (s) + 2 KNO 3 (aq)
a. 97.4 mL
b. 116 mL
c. 43.0 mL
d. 86.1 mL
e. 58.1 mL
What volume (in mL) of 0.500 M KMnO 4 is required to react with 0.2506 g of Cu+ according to the equation:
MnO4– + 5 Cu+ + 8 H+ ⇌ Mn2+ + 4H2O
A 55.0 mL sample of a 0.102 M potassium sulfate solution is mixed with 35.0 mL of a 0.114 M lead (II) acetate solution and this precipitation reaction occurs:
K2SO4 (aq) + Pb(C2H3O2)2 (aq) → 2 KC 2H3O2 (aq) + PbSO4 (s)
The solid PbSO4 is collected , dried, and found to have a mass of 1.01 g. Determine the limiting reactant, the theoretical yield, and the percent yield.
What volume of 0.305 M AgNO3 is required to react exactly with 155.0 mL of 0.274 M Na2SO4 solution?
The iron content in ores can be determined by titrating a sample with a solution of potassium permanganate. The ore is first dissolved in hydrochloric acid, forming iron (II) ions, which react with permanganate ions according to the following net-ionic reaction:
MnO4- (aq) + 5 Fe 2+ + 8H + (aq) → Mn 2+ (aq) + 5 Fe 3+ (aq) + 4 H 2O (l)
A sample of ore of mass 0.202g was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and the resulting solution needed 16.7 mL of 0.0108 M KMnO4(aq) to reach the stoichiometric point.
What mass of iron (II) ions are present?
What is the mass percentage of iron in the sample of ore?
Consider the following reaction sequence for the determination of dissolved oxygen in water:
2MnSO4(aq) + 4NaOH(aq) + O 2(aq) → 2MnO2(s) + 2Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
MnO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) → MnSO 4(aq) + I 2(aq) + Na 2SO4(aq) + 2H 2O(l)
I2(aq) + 2Na 2S2O3(aq) → Na 2S4O6(aq) + 2NaI(aq)
If 9.00 mL of 0.0240 M Na 2S2O3(aq) are used in the analysis, how many moles of dissolved oxygen were determined?
a) 4.32 x 10-4 mol
b) 2.70 x 10-5 mol
c) 5.40 x 10-5 mol
d) 2.16 x 10-4 mol
e) 1.08 x 10-4 mol
Manganese in an ore can be determined by treating the ore with a measured, excess quantity of sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) to reduce MnO2(s) to MnCl 2(aq) followed by determination of the unreacted sodium oxalate by titration with potassium permanganate. The equations for this two step process are:
MnO2(s) + Na2C2O4(aq) + 4HCl(aq) → 2MnCl 2(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) +2NaCl(aq)
2KMnO4(aq) + 5Na2C2O4(aq) + 16HCl(aq) → 2MnCl 2(aq) + 10CO2(g) + 8H2O(l) + 10NaCl(aq)
If a sample is treated with 50.0 mL of 0.275 M Na 2C2O4(aq) and the unreacted Na 2C2O4(aq) requires 18.28 mL of 0.1232 M KMnO4(aq), calculate the number of grams of manganese in the sample. (NOTE: use the equations as written despite the fact they are not completely balanced)