Ch.1 - Intro to General ChemistryWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes, with the atom being its basic functional unit. 

Matter

Concept #1: Understanding Matter

Transcript

Hey guys! Welcome to Clutch. My name is Jules Bruno, and I'll be your Chemistry 1 tutor this semester. Growing up, we’re taught about Math, English and some of the other social sciences early on in life. But for very few of us, we might get exposed to chemistry when we’re in high school. But even then, we’re only shown a small glimpse of the possibilities behind chemistry. For the vast majority of us, we don't see chemistry until we get to college. At that point, we're talking about empirical formula and moles, ionic bonds and covalent bonds. It might seem a little bit confusing. It's my goal this semester to help to demystify chemistry and break it down into a much simpler aspect so that you can better understand more complex ideas.
Our teachers sometimes talk to us as though we’re chemists, but the thing is we’re not chemists. We’re students. It's my goal this semester whether you’re majoring in chemistry or majoring in some other subject to help you guys better understand the advanced topics we’re going to cover this semester so that you can succeed in this course.
What we're going to do now is we're going to head to our first topic. Now, if we take a look, we're going to see that our first topic is basically what is chemistry. Chemistry is just the study of matter and the changes that it undergoes. Matter is basically anything that has mass to it and takes up space. Your book, your book bag, your computer. Everything around us is made up of matter, even ourselves. Everything that has some mass to it and takes up any amount of space is considered matter.
We're going to say the changes matter undergoes are two types. Matter can undergo physical changes in which it just changes the state it’s in. For example, we have an ice cube water solid melting in the sun. It going’s from water as a solid to water as a liquid. A physical change does not change the compound itself. It stays the same compound. The second type of change we're talking about is chemical change. Chemical change basically changes the composition, the makeup, of that compound. Let's say I superheat the water and it basically gets vaporized into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. It started off as water, but now it’s something completely different, two new products. This is an example of a chemical change.
We're going to say that the basic functional unit in chemistry is defined as the atom. We're going to say when two or more these atoms chemically bond together, they're going to form an independent structure which we call a molecule. When I say atom, I really mean element. Let's say we have an element A. It could combine with itself, a second amount of itself, to give us a molecule A2 or that element A or atom A could combine with something totally different, an atom B to create a molecule AB. Basically when I say atom, really meaning elements, individual elements. They can either combined with themselves to create molecules or they could combine with something entirely different from themselves to still make a molecule.

Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass

Concept #2: Classifications of Matter

Transcript

Now we’re going to have to say we have to classify the different types, the different states of matter. Now we’re going to say that under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure matter can exist in 3 different states. We know what these are, they’re solids, liquids and gases. And here on the bottom I basically give us 3 illustrations to help us see the different types of matter, the different states of matter. So we’re going to say in the first blank, we’re going to say these have a fixed shape and volume. Meaning that if I put them in a container they hold on to their properties, their physical features. So if we take a look at this first container we can see that we have some type of solid in there. Maybe a lump of clay, a lump of dirt. That’s going to be our solid. Solids don’t take on the shape of the container or fill up the volume. For the next one we say that these guys take up the shape and volume of the container. Now some of you might say this is a liquid, but that’s not always true. The better answer is, are gases. Gases will take up the shape and volume of the container. Now if we take a look at this third image right here you can see that inside the container it looks a little bit pink. That pink color is basically gas molecules spreading themselves out as far as possible to take up every single inch inside of that container. We’re going to say that when gases do that they’re behaving ideally. We won’t get to see this yet, we’ll see this later on in the semester when we’re focusing predominately on gases. But just remember, this is a normal behavior of gases. If you give them any amount of room, they’re going to take all of that room up. So that leaves us that last one. We’re going to say that liquids will conform to the shape of the container, but not necessarily the volume. They don’t always take up the volume, so for example we take a look at this picture. We can see that we have a red liquid at the bottom of the container, but there’s not enough liquid to take up the entire volume of the container. We can say that we might have 10 milliliters of the liquid, but the container itself can hold up to about 30 milliliters. As a result, we don’t have enough liquid to take up the entire volume. So, just remember chemistry is just the study of matter, matter has 3 different states. Each one have certain properties that they hold true to themselves, and remember we’re going to talk more later on about physical and chemical changes that matter can undergo. Understand these basic principles so that we can branch away from them to more complex and more chemical based equations, and ideas and concepts.

Under appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature, most substances can exist in 3 states of matter.

Concept #3: Volume, compressibility and viscosity of phases of matter 

Transcript

From this, we can take a microscopic explanation to see what each of these different states of matter have in common and what they have different from one another. We're going to say that for the gases, the gases—remember they assume the shape and volume of their containers.
We can see that in the third container, it's kind of like a pink haze inside of the container. That's because if you give a gas a chance, it will take up every single inch of space that's available. It will take on the full shape and fill up the entire volume of any container it's in.
For the liquid, the liquid, we're going to say it assumes the shape of the portion of its container it occupies. In the middle container, we can see that liquid becomes a cylinder, just like the container it's in. It takes on the same shape of it, but if there's not enough liquid, it can't take up the volume. Liquid usually just take up the shape but not necessarily the volume. If there's not enough liquid to fill up the entire container then it won't take up the volume.
Solid, solids we're going to say maintain a fixed shape and volume.
For the next category, we're talking about compressibility. All these means is 'Am I able to squeeze the atoms to make them more tightly packed, to bring them closer to one another?' Remember, compressibility just means, 'Am I able to squeeze the atom within each of these states of matter?'
Here the gases, the molecules are very far apart. The atoms, they are super far apart, they're bouncing everywhere. Because they're far apart, I'm able to squeeze them and caused them to become closer together. We're going to say that gases are very compressible. I'm able to use pressure, increase the pressure and squeeze them closer together.
In liquids, the liquids are not as tightly packed as solids, but they really are next to each other. They're sliding against each other, sliding around each other. We're going to say that liquids are not easily compressible. We can barely do anything to put them closer together.
Solids, we already said in the beginning that solids form a rigid structure. The atoms are tightly packed. They're as close as we can make them. We're going to say that solids are not compressible at all.
Finally the last concept viscosity! Viscosity, just think of it as resistance to flow. We're going to say that viscosity is the resistance to flow. What does this mean? That just means that something that is viscous does not want to move. Let's think of two different examples.
Let's say we have two buckets. We have a bucket of water and a bucket of honey. Let's say, right in front of us is maybe someone we don't quite like, maybe a childhood bully, maybe a classmate, maybe even a professor.
If I took that container, that bucket of water and tipped it over on top of the head of the person, the water would fall on to them very quickly. Water moves very easily, because water has a low viscosity. It doesn't have a big resistance to flow. It will flow easily. So, we say if you flow easily, you have a low viscosity.
If we took that bucket of honey though and we tipped it over, we would say that honey is more viscous. Honey moves very slowly. It wouldn't be able to dump all of the content on to the person's head. It would move very slowly. If you move very slowly, you're viscous.
We're going to say that gases, gases have a low viscosity. They move very easily. They're bouncing off the walls, bouncing everywhere. Gases have a low viscosity. Liquids will also have a low viscosity. The water we talked about, water flows easily, so we'd say that water has a low viscosity. Solids are kind of slow. So we're going to say solids have a high viscosity. They don't move very easily.
Now, for solids, how could we make them less viscous, make them move faster? You can apply heat. We're going to say, if you increase the temperature of a substance, then you excite that molecules in that substance and then you decrease viscosity. Just remember that, increasing temperature lowers viscosity. Increasing temperature makes you move faster. If you move faster, you're less viscous.
What we're going to do now, and we've seen all the different types of explanations for the three states of matter and we're going to pay very close attention to our gases. We're going to say that the gas is distinct from the liquids and the solids. Because it's so much more compressible, because it's more greatly affected by temperature and pressure than the other two, that's where we're going to pay so much attention to the gases.
We're going to pay attention to the gases and help us formed the ideal gas law. That's what these sets of videos are going to be focused on. Just the ideal gas law, the different types of matter that exists especially gas.
Guys, just remember, when it comes to gases, they're very distinct from the other two and because of that we're going to pay very close attention to them and the effects that happen to them when we messed around with the pressure, messed around with the temperature and play around with the volume. 

The closeness of molecules within the three phases of matter affects how they respond to changes in volume, pressure and temperature. 

Additional Problems
The diagram represents solid carbon dioxide, also known as dry ice. Which of the diagrams below best represents the dry ice after it has sublimed into a gas? 
A substance that can't be chemically broken down into simpler substances is A) a homogeneous mixture. B) an element. C) a heterogeneous mixture. D) a compound. E) an electron.
Explain the difference between a pure substance and a mixture. 
Explain the difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture.
Consider the following substance I. saline IV solution II. salt (NaCl) III. aluminum foil IV. salad dressing Which of the following is true? A) I and III are pure substances, IV is a homogeneous mixture. B) I and II are homogeneous mixtures C) Both II and III are pure substances, I is a homogeneous mixture D) None of the above is true
Suppose a container holds 1 gram of each of these gases: carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor, and dinitrogen pentoxide, along with 50 g of water. What is true? A. The contents are a homogenous mixture. B. Every molecule is also a compound. C. Both metals and non-metals are in the container. D. There are 4 pure substances. 
Which of the following is NOT an example of a solution? (A) bronze (B) the atmosphere (C) sterling silver (D) Gatorade (E) all of these are examples of solutions
Choose the homogeneous mixture from the list below. A) soda (pop) B) air C) concrete D) trail mix E) blood
Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture?
When a purple liquid was distilled, a blue liquid separated from a red solid.  What is the most likely identity of the purple liquid? a) an element b) some unknown entity c) a solution d) a compound e) a pure substance
Two or more substances in variable proportions, where the composition is constant throughout are considered A) a compound. B) an element. C) a heterogeneous mixture. D) a homogeneous mixture. E) a crystalline solid.
Two or more substances in variable proportions, where the composition is variable throughout are considered A) a solution. B) a homogeneous mixture. C) a compound. D) an amorphous solid.. E) a heterogeneous mixture.
Consider the following substances: I. Gatorade II. Crystalline sugar III. Copper wire IV. Salsa Which of the following is true? A. I and III are pure substances, IV is a homogeneous mixture. B. I and II are homogeneous mixtures. C. Both II and III are pure substances, I is a homogeneous mixture. D. None of the above is true.
Answer each of the following questions based on the images provided below. 
Classify the following as a pure substance or mixture (what kind). A) Smoke B) A bar of gold C) Air D) Salt E) Baking soda F) Honey G) Fruit Salad 
Choose the homogeneous mixture from the list below. A. Ice water B. Wet sand C. Trail mix D. Plain black coffee E. Chocolate chip cookie
Which of the following is a compound? A. Hydrogen B. Water C. Helium D. Seawater E. Magnesium 
Each shape represents a type of particle (such as an atom or molecule).Classify each image as a pure substance, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture.
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
What is the difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
Musical instruments like trumpets and trombones are made from an alloy called brass. Brass is composed of copper and zinc atoms and appears homogeneous under an optical microscope. The approximate composition of most brass objects is a 2:1 ratio of copper to zinc atoms, but the exact ratio varies somewhat from one piece of brass to another.Would it be correct to say that brass is a solution?
How do the properties of compounds compare to the properties of the elements from which the compounds are composed?When two elements combine to form a compound, ...
Choose another image to represent a compound composed of the two atoms.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.
How do solids, liquids, and gases differ?
What is the difference between a pure substance and a mixture?
What is the difference between an element and a compound?
Which of the following would you characterize as a pure or nearly pure substance?
Let a triangle represent atoms of element A and a circle represent atoms of element B. Select what is shown on each of the pictures
Let a triangle represent atoms of element A and a circle represent atoms of element B. Select what is shown on each of the pictures
Based on the following molecular views, classify each substance as an atomic element, a molecular element, an ionic compound, or a molecular compound.(c)
Let a triangle represent atoms of element A and a circle represent atoms of element B. Select what is shown on each of the pictures
Molecular models. The white, black, and red spheres represent atoms of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, respectively.Which of the molecules in the figure has the most carbon atoms?
The drawings below accurately represent three samples of matter. Indicate the physical state of each sample.
A solid white substance A is heated strongly in the absence of air. It decomposes to form a new white substance B and a gas C. The gas has exactly the same properties as the product obtained when carbon is burned in an excess of oxygen.Based on these observations, can we determine whether solid A is an element or a compound?
What are the main properties of liquids (in contrast to gases and solids)?
What are the main properties of solids (in contrast to liquids and gases)?
What are two different ways to classify matter?
How do solids, liquids, and gases differ?
What is the difference between a pure substance and a mixture?
What is the difference between an element and a compound?
The following diagram represents solid carbon dioxide, also known as dry ice. Which of the following diagrams best represents the dry ice after it has sublimed into a gas?
Using a small circle to represent each atom of one type of element and a small square to represent each atom of a second type of element, determine a drawing of: a pure substance (a compound) composed of the two elements (in a one-to-one ratio); a homogeneous mixture composed of the two elements; and a heterogeneous mixture composed of the two elements.
How do the properties of compounds compare to the properties of the elements from which the compounds are composed?The properties of compounds are generally ...
Which of the following formulas refers to a pure element?(A) H2O(B) H2O2(C) O2(D) Xf(E) answer to both (C) and (D)
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.a. a gaseous compound
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.b. a mixture of two gaseous elements
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.c. a solid element
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.d. a mixture of a gaseous element and a gaseous compound
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.a. a door
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.b. the air you breathe
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.c. a cup of coffee (black)
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.d. the water you drink
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.e. salsa
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.f. your lab partner
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.a. potting soil
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.b. white wine
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.c. your sock drawer
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.d. window glass
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.e. granite
Identify a solid.A) definite volume and definite shapeB) definite volume and no definite shapeC) no definite shape and definite volumeD) no definite shape and no definite volume
The figure shows all but which of the following:A)  two elements and a compound.B)  a chemical reaction.C)  one mixture and one pure substance.D)  three compounds.E)  five molecules.
Which diagrams represent the pure substances?(A) 1 and 2(B) 1 and 3(C) 2 and 3(D) 2 and 4
The photo below shows a picture of an agate stone. Jack, who picked up the stone on the Lake Superior shoreline and polished it, insists that agate is a chemical compound. Ellen argues that it cannot be a compound. Discuss the relative merits of their positions.
Is brass an element, compound, or mixture?
Which of the following is not an example of matter?a. carbon dioxide in your exhaled breathb. steamc. heat from a barbeque grill
Explain the difference between an element and a compound.
Sea water is an example of a. a compound b. an element c. a heterogeneous mixture d. a homogenous mixture
Give four examples illustrating each of the following terms.a. homogeneous mixture
Give four examples illustrating each of the following terms.b. heterogeneous mixture
Give four examples illustrating each of the following terms.c. compound
Give four examples illustrating each of the following terms.d. element
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called:a) a compound.b) an electrolyte.c) a solution.d) a solvent.e) a mess.
Which of the following figures represents (a) a pure element? (More than one picture might fit each descríption.)[Section 1.2] 
Which of the following figures represents  (b) a mixture of two elements? (More than one picture might fit each descríption.)[Section 1.2] 
Which of the following figures represents (c) a pure compound? (More than one picture might fit each descríption.)[Section 1.2] 
Which of the following figures represents (d) a mixture of an element and a compound? (More than one picture might fit each descríption.)[Section 1.2] 
Based on our introductory discussions of matter and measurement, which of the following matching statements is  INCORRECT?a) A state of matter that is significantly compressible: gasb) Anything that has mass and takes up space: matterc) Gas to solid conversion: sublimationd) Matter of variable composition: mixturese) The number of significant figures in the measurement 0.00230 m: 3
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (a) rice pudding.
Distinguish between the following terms.c. molecule versus compound
Molecules can be described asA) a mixture of two or more pure substances.B) a mixture of two or more elements that has a specific ratio between components.C) two or more atoms joined together in a specific geometric arrangement.D) a heterogeneous mixtureE) a homogeneous mixture
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous:  (b) seawater. 
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous:  (c) magnesium.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (d) gasoline. 
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (d) crushed ice. 
Which is a pure element? 
Which of the following is a greeenhouse gas.A. Water vaporB. Carbon dioxideC. MethaneD. OzoneE. All of the above
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (a) air. 
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (b) tomato juice. 
A substance that canʹt be chemically broken down into simpler substances is consideredA) a homogeneous mixture.B) an element.C) a heterogeneous mixture.D) a compound.E) an electron.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (c) iodine crystals. 
Which is a pure compound?
These figures represent examples of matter and its composition. Which statement is INCORRECT?
Choose the pure substance from the list below.A. SeawaterB. AirC. Carbon monoxideD. LemonadeE. Soda 
Which choice best represents the species in the figure below?a. Three different compoundsb. A triatomic compound and a diatomic compoundc. Two different compounds and one elementd. Five molecules of one compound, two molecules of a second compound and one molecule of an elemente. One compound and two different elements
Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture? (a) copper (b) salt water (c) carbon dioxide (d) salad (e) neon
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.a. aluminumb. apple juicec. hydrogen peroxided. chicken soup
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.a. waterb. coffeec. iced. carbon
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.b. a mixture of two gaseous elements
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.d. a mixture of a gaseous element and a gaseous compound
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.a. a door
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.b. the air you breathe
Let a small circle represent an atom of one type of element and a small square represent an atom of a second type of element. Select what is shown on each of the pictures:(a) a pure substance (a compound) composed of the two elements (in a one-to-one ratio)(b) a homogeneous mixture composed of the two elements(c) a heterogeneous mixture composed of the two elements
Let a small circle represent an atom of one type of element and a small square represent an atom of a second type of element. Select what is shown on each of the pictures:(a) a pure substance (a compound) composed of the two elements (in a one-to-one ratio)(b) a homogeneous mixture composed of the two elements(c) a heterogeneous mixture composed of the two elements
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.c. a cup of coffee (black)
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.d. the water you drink
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.e. salsa
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.f. your lab partner
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.a. potting soil
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.b. white wine
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or as heterogeneous.c. your sock drawer
Judge the following statement as true or false. If you believe a statement to be false, provide a corrected version.All mixtures contain at least one element and one compound.
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or asheterogeneous.d. window glass
Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or asheterogeneous.e. granite
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound. If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.a. sweatb. carbon dioxidec. aluminumd. vegetable soup
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound. If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.a. wineb. beef stewc. irond. carbon monoxide
Determine whether each molecular diagram represents a pure substance or a mixture. If it represents a pure substance, classify the substance as an element or a compound. If it represents a mixture, classify the mixture as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
How does a heterogeneous mixture differ from a homogeneous mixture? How are they similar?
How does a homogeneous mixture differ from a pure substance? How are they similar?
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous.(a) air
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
A dictionary definition of homogeneous is “uniform in composition throughout.” River water is a mixture of dissolved compounds, such as calcium bicarbonate, and suspended soil particles. Is river water homogeneous? Explain.
Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of how they fill a container. Use your descriptions to identify the physical state (at room temperature) of the following: • Mercury in a thermometer.
1.92Judge the following statement as true or false. If you believe a statement to be false, provide a corrected version.(d) Elements can exist in any of the three states of matter.
Which of the following statements is(are) true?a. A spoonful of sugar is a mixture.b. Only elements are pure substances.c. Air is a mixture of gases.d. Gasoline is a pure substance.e. Compounds can be broken down only by chemical means.
Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of how they fill a container. Use your descriptions to identify the physical state (at room temperature) of the following:• Soup in a bowl.
1.92Judge the following statement as true or false. If you believe a statement to be false, provide a corrected version.(i) Compounds always contain at least two different elements.
Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of how they fill a container. Use your descriptions to identify the physical state (at room temperature) of the following: • Tablets in a bottle of vitamins.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.a. aluminumb. apple juicec. hydrogen peroxided. chicken soup
1.13Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (b) seawater
Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of how they fill a container. Use your descriptions to identify the physical state (at room temperature) of the following:• Sugar in a packet.
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.a. aluminumb. apple juicec. hydrogen peroxided. chicken soup
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (c) magnesium
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.a. waterb. coffeec. iced. carbon
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (d) crushed ice
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.a. waterb. coffeec. iced. carbon
1.14Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous.(b) tomato juice
1.14Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous.(c) iodine crystals
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.a. a gaseous compound
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous.(d) sand
Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all.c. a solid element
Define the following terms: solid, liquid, gas, pure substance, element, compound, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture, solution, chemical change, physical change.
The diagram represents liquid water molecules in a pan.Which of the three diagrams best represents the water molecules after they have been vaporized by the boiling of liquid water?
Classify each of the following molecular diagrams as a pure substance or a mixture.
Classify each substance as an element or a compound.
Judge the following statement as true or false. If you believe a statement to be false, provide a corrected version.Compounds can be decomposed into two or more other substances; elements cannot.
Judge the following statement as true or false. If you believe a statement to be false, provide a corrected version.Air and water are both elements.
What are the main properties of solids (in contrast to liquids and gases)? Check all those that apply.a. Solids are easily compressed.b. Solids have lower densities in comparison to gases.c.Solids are not easily compressed.d. Solids have much higher densities in comparison to gases.e. Solids can`t be crystalline (ordered) or amorphous (disordered).f. Solids have a definite shape and do not assume the shape of their container.g. Solids have an indefinite volume.h. Solids have an indefinite shape and do assume the shape of their container.i. Solids have a definite volume.Solids may be crystalline (ordered) or amorphous (disordered).
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (a) distilled water
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.a. waterOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.b. bloodOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (b) gasoline
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.c. the oceansOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (c) beach sand
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.d. ironOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (d) wine
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (e) air
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.e. brassOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (a) orange juice
Which state of matter is compressible?
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.f. uraniumOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (b) vegetable soup
Classify each of the following molecular diagrams as a pure substance or a mixture.
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (c) cement
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.g. wineOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (d) calcium sulfate
Classify each of the following as a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture: (e) tea
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.h. leatherOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.i. table saltOf the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds?
Suppose a teaspoon of magnesium filings and a teaspoon of powdered sulfur are placed together in a metal beaker. Would this constitute a mixture or a pure substance? Suppose the magnesium filings and sulfur are heated so they react with each other, forming magnesium sulfide. Would this still be a “mixture”? Why or why not?
If a piece of hard white blackboard chalk is heated strongly in a flame, the mass of the piece of chalk will decrease, and eventually the chalk will crumble into a fine white dust. Does this change suggest that the chalk is composed of an element or a compound?
The properties of a mixture are typically averages of the properties of its components. The properties of a compound may differ dramatically from the properties of the elements that combine to produce the compound. For each process described below, state whether the material being discussed is most likely a mixture or a compound, and state whether the process is a chemical change or a physical change.a. An orange liquid is distilled, resulting in the collection of a yellow liquid and a red solid.
The properties of a mixture are typically averages of the properties of its components. The properties of a compound may differ dramatically from the properties of the elements that combine to produce the compound. For each process described below, state whether the material being discussed is most likely a mixture or a compound, and state whether the process is a chemical change or a physical change.b. A colorless, crystalline solid is decomposed, yielding a pale yellow-green gas and a soft, shiny metal.
The properties of a mixture are typically averages of the properties of its components. The properties of a compound may differ dramatically from the properties of the elements that combine to produce the compound. For each process described below, state whether the material being discussed is most likely a mixture or a compound, and state whether the process is a chemical change or a physical change.c. A cup of tea becomes sweeter as sugar is added to it.
What properties distinguish solids from liquids? Liquids from gases? Solids from gases?
How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(a) copper
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(a) iron
Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of how they fill a container. Use your descriptions to identify the physical state (at room temperature) of the following: • Helium in a toy balloon.
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(b) water
Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of how they fill a container. Use your descriptions to identify the physical state (at room temperature) of the following: • The air in your room.
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(c) nitrogen
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(d) sulfur
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(e) air
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(f) sucrose
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(g) a substance composed of molecules each of which contains two iodine atoms
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(h) gasoline
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(b) oxygen
The block diagram below classifies the components of matter on the macroscopic scale. Identify blocks (a)–(d).
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(c) mercury oxide
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(d) pancake syrup
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(e) carbon dioxide
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(f) a substance composed of molecules each of which contains one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(g) baking soda
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.
Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:(h) baking powder
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.
Classify each of the following molecular diagrams as a pure substance or a mixture.
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound.
Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K. The image shown below depicts a sample of liquid nitrogen.Which image best depics the nitrogen after it has boiled?
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (a) rice pudding
Which of the figures represents a pure element, a mixture of two elements, a pure compound, or a mixture of an element and a compound? (More than one picture might fit each description.)
This molecular diagram shows a sample of liquid water.Which of the diagrams below best depicts the vapor emitted from a pot of boiling water?
Which of the following is not an example of matter?a. gasoline fumesb. ether fumesc. goldd. a sentiment
Let a triangle represent atoms of element  A and a circle represent atoms of element B. Select what is shown on each of the pictures
How are elements and compounds related?
Classify each of the following molecular diagrams as a pure substance or a mixture. 
A solid white substance A is heated strongly in the absence of air. It decomposes to form a new white substance B and a gas C. The gas has exactly the same properties as the product obtained when carbon is burned in an excess of oxygen.Based on these observations, can we determine whether gas C is an element or a compound?
Based on the following molecular views, classify each substance as an atomic element, a molecular element, an ionic compound, or a molecular compound.(a)
Explain the following statement in your own words and give an example. The properties of the substances around us depend on the atoms and molecules that compose them.
Classify each of the following as a pure substance, a solution, or a heterogeneous mixture:a gold ingot
Classify each of the following as a pure substance, a solution, or a heterogeneous mixture:a cup of coffee
A solution is also called a
Which of the picture(s) below shows a pure substance?A. (i) onlyB. (i) and (iv) onlyC. (i), (iv), (v) and (vi) onlyD. (ii), (iii) and (iv) onlyE. (iv) only
In which form of water are the water molecules farthest apart?
A solid white substance A is heated strongly in the absence of air. It decomposes to form a new white substance B and a gas C. The gas has exactly the same properties as the product obtained when carbon is burned in an excess of oxygen.Based on these observations, can we determine whether solid B is an element or a compound?
Choose the pure substance from the list below.A. sea waterB. sugarC. airD. lemonadeE. milk
A substance that can't be chemically broken down into simpler substances is:A. a homogeneous mixtureB. an elementC. a heterogeneous mixtureD. a compoundE. an electron 
A substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed, definite proportion is:A. a homogeneous mixtureB. a heterogenous mixtureC. a compoundD. a solutionE. an alloy
The following diagram represents solid carbon dioxide, also known as dry ice. Which of the following diagrams best represents the dry ice after it has sublimed into a gas? 
This image represents a particulate view of a sample of matter.Classify the sample according to its composition.
Musical instruments like trumpets and trombones are made from an alloy called brass. Brass is composed of copper and zinc atoms and appears homogeneous under an optical microscope. The approximate composition of most brass objects is a 2:1 ratio of copper to zinc atoms, but the exact ratio varies somewhat from one piece of brass to another.Would you classify brass as an element, a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture?
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture. If a mixture, indicate whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous: (d) sand. 
Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?a. A bottle of brine (slightly salty water).b. A dish of steamed vegetables, fresh from the microwave oven.c. The contents of a balloon containing helium, nitrogen, and oxygen gases.d. A beaker containing a well-stirred mixture of ethanol (drinking alcohol) and watere. All of the above.
Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture? a. gasoline b. vegetable oil and water c. sugar dissolved in water d. a and c e. a, b, and c
Sugar dissolved in water is best described as ana. homogeneous mixtureb. heterogeneous mixturec. elementd. pure substancee. none of these
Which of the following are mixtures? Check all that apply. (a) water (H2O) (b) salt (NaCl) (c) salt water (d) air (mostly N2 and O2)
Let a triangle represent atoms of element A and a circle represent atoms of element B. Select what is shown on each of the pictures
What is the difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
What are two different ways to classify matter?
How do the molecules of a compound differ from the molecules of an element?
A sulfur atom and a sulfur molecule are not identical. What is the difference?
What are the main properties of liquids (in contrast to gases and solids)? Check all that apply.a. Liquids have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container.b. Liquids have much higher densities in comparison to gases.c. Liquids are not easily compressed.d. Liquids have an indefinite shape and do not assume the shape of their container.e. Liquids are easily compressed.f. Liquids have not a definite volume.g. Liquids have a definite volume.h. Liquids have lower densities in comparison to gases.
Which of the following are examples of homogeneous mixtures?              • Cheddar cheese                • Iced tea with no ice              • Chicken noodle soup              • Bread pudding Which of the following are examples of heterogeneous mixtures?              • Vanilla ice cream              • Antifreeze              • Rocky road ice cream              • Trail mix
Be sure to answer all parts.Several elements and compounds are given below. (a) Select the compound(s).                     • S8                       • NH3                      • N2                      • NO (b) Select the element(s).                      • CO                      • H2                     • CO2                      • SO2
The first diagram depicts a compound in its liquid state.Which of the other diagrams best depicts the compound after it has evaporated into a gas?
 A deep-sea scuba tank contains helium, oxygen, and traces of other gases. Which of the following describes the gas in the scuba tank? a. O element b. homogeneous micture c. compound d. heterogeneous mixture e. none of the other choices listesd D 
Classify each of the following as a pure substance, a solution, or a heterogeneous mixture:a wood plank
Propane can be decomposed chemically to give carbon and hydrogen in a definite ratio, so propane is:a) a homogenous mixtureb) a heterogenous mixturec) a solutiond) an elemente) a compound
This image represents a particulate view of a sample of matter.Classify the sample according to its composition.
How are gases different from solids and liquids? A) Gases are colorless, but solids and liquids are not. B) A gas takes the shape of its container, while solids and liquids do not. C) A gas takes the volume of its container, while solids and liquids do not. D) Gases can only be made up of atoms, not molecules. E) The particles in a gas attract each other much more strongly than particles in solids and liquids do.
If it is a mixture, classify it as homogeneous or heterogeneous. (a) White wine is heterogeneous: beef stew is homogeneous. (b) White wine is homogeneous: beef stew is heterogeneous. (c) Both are homogeneous. (d) Both are heterogeneous.
Which of the following statements is false? Select one: 
If it is a pure substance, classify it as an element or a compound. (a) Nickel is a compound: carbon monoxide is an element. (b) Nickel is an element: carbon monoxide is a compound. (c) Both are elements. (d) Both are compounds.
Is Air an element, a compound, or a mixture?
Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture.  If a mixture, indicate homogeneous or heterogeneous a)  airb)  tomato juicec)  iodine crystalsd)  sand